Lymphedema pp 279-285 | Cite as

Lower Limb Lymphedema

  • Győző Szolnoky


Lower extremity lymphedema accounts for the majority of all lymphedema cases. There­fore, its treatment deserves more attention than treatment of any other part of the body.


Axillary Lymph Node Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Interface Pressure Compression Garment Chronic Venous Insufficiency 


  1. 1.
    Ely JW, Osheroff JA, Chambliss ML, Ebell MH. Approach to leg edema of unclear etiology. J Am Board Fam Med. 2006;19:148-160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Papendieck C. Lymphatic dysplasia in pediatrics. A new classification. Int Angiol. 1999;18:6-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wozniewski M, Jasinski R, Pilch U, Dabrowska G. Complex physical therapy for lymphoedema of the limbs. Physiotherapy. 2001;87:252-256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lymphoedema Framework. Best Practice for the Management of Lymphoedema, International Consensus. London: MEP Ltd; 2006:3-52.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Strössenreuther RHK. Hinweise zur Durchführung der ML/KPE bei primären und sekundären Lymphödemen sowie weiteren ausgewahlten Krankheitsbildern. In: Földi M, Kubik S, eds. Lehrbuch der Lymphologie, vol. 5. München-Jena: Gustav Fischer; 2002:621-658: Chap.  19.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Badger C, Preston N, Seers K, Mortimer P. Physical therapies for reducing and controlling lymphoedema of the limbs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;4:CD003141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hutzschenreuter P, Brümmer H, Ebberfeld K. Experimental and clinical studies of the mechanism of effect of manual lymph drainage therapy. Z Lymphol. 1989;13:62-64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schillinger A, Koenig D, Haefele C, et al. Effect of manual lymph drainage on the course of serum levels of muscle enzymes after treadmill exercise. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85:516-520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Partsch H, Flour M, Coleridge-Smith P, et al. Indications for compression therapy in venous and lymphatic disease. Consensus based on experimental data and scientific evidence under the auspices of the IUP. Int Angiol. 2008;27:193-219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    International Society of Lymphology. The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral lymphedema. Consensus document of the International Society of Lymphology. Lymphology. 2009;42:51-60.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bergan JJ, Sparks S, Angle N. A comparison of compression pumps in the treatment of lymphedema. J Vasc Surg. 1998;32:455-462.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Szuba A, Achalu R, Rockson SG. Decongestive lymphatic therapy for patients with breast carcinoma-associated lymphedema. A randomised, prospective study of a role of adjunctive pneumatic compression. Cancer. 2002;95:2260-2267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Partsch H. Intermittent pneumatic compression in immobile patients. Int Wound J. 2008;5:389-397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miranda F Jr, Perez MC, Castiglioni ML, et al. Effect of sequential intermittent pneumatic compression. Lymphology. 2001;34:135-141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boris M, Weindorf S, Lasinski BB. The risk of genital edema after external pump compression for lower limb lymphedema. Lymphology. 1998;31:15-20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Partsch H, Clark M, Mosti G, et al. Classification of compression bandages: practical aspects. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:600-609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marston W, Vowden K. Compression therapy: a guide to safe practice. In: European Wound Management Association (EWMA), ed. Position Document: Understanding Compression Therapy. London: MEP Ltd; 2003:11-17.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Damstra RJ, Brouwer E, Partsch H. Controlled, comparative study of relation between volume changes and interface pressure under short-stretch bandages in leg lymphedema patients. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:773-778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lund E. Exploring the use of CircAid legging in the management of lymphoedema. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2000;6:383-391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brorson H, Ohlin K, Olsson G, Svensson B, Svensson H. Controlled compression and liposuction treatment for lower extremity lymphedema. Lymphology. 2008;41:52-63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stout Gergich NL, Pfalzer LA, McGarvey C, et al. Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema. Cancer. 2008;112:2809-2819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sawan S, Mugnai R, de Barros Lopes A, Hughes A, Edmondson R. Lower-limb lymphedema and vulval cancer: feasibility of prophylactic compression garments and validation of leg volume measurement. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009;19:1649-1654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Partsch H, Partsch B, Braun W. Interface pressure and stiffness of ready made compression stockings: comparison of in vivo and in vitro measurements. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44:809-814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Larsen AM, Futtrup I. Watch the pressure – it drops! EWMA J. 2004;4:8-12.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Havas E, Parviainen T, Vuorela J, Toivanen J, Nikula T, Vihko V. Lymph flow dynamics in exercising human skeletal muscle as detected by scintigraphy. J Physiol. 1997;504:233-239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moseley A, Piller N, Carati C, Esterman A. The impact of the Sun AnconChi Machine Aerobic Exerciser on chronic oedema of the legs. Aust N Z J Phlebology. 2003;7:5-10.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Buckley G, Piller N, Moseley A. Can exercise improve lymphatic flow? A pilot trial of the objective measurement of fluid movement in subjects with mild secondary lymphoedema. 5th Australasian Lymphology Association Conference Proceedings; 2004:37-42.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Johansson K, Tibe K, Weibull A, Newton RC. Low intensity resistance exercise for breast cancer patients with arm lymphedema with or without compression sleeve. Lymphology. 2005;38:167-180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tidhar D, Drouin J, Shimony A. Aqua lymphatic therapy in managing lower extremity lymphedema. J Support Oncol. 2007;5:179-183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carpentier PH, Satger B. Randomized trial of balneotherapy associated with patient education in patients with advanced chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49:163-170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Győző Szolnoky
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and AllergologyUniversity of SzegedSzegedHungary

Personalised recommendations