Raw Materials, Selection, Preparation and Characterization

  • Fernando Rubiera
  • José Juan Pis
  • Covadonga Pevida
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


Among the different energy sources, biomass wastes hold most promise for the near future. Biomass is considered a neutral carbon fuel because the carbon dioxide released during its use is an integral part of the carbon cycle. Increasing the share of biomass in the energy supply contributes to diminishing the environmental impact of CO2 and to meeting the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. The use of biomass waste material as a fuel, however, has certain drawbacks related with its high-moisture content, low-energy density and the problem of reducing the size of the biomass, especially in the pulverized range of entrained flow gasifiers. Currently, there is increasing interest in developing new processes for the pre-treatment of biomass wastes, through the modification of their properties prior to gasification, so as to make them more attractive for their subsequent use. Pelletization is a proven technology for improving biomass properties, whereas torrefaction is considered a plausible alternative for decreasing the moisture content, increasing the energy density and greatly facilitating the handleability and grindability properties of the torrefied material.


Bituminous Coal Biomass Waste Wood Pellet Olive Stone Almond Shell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Pellets from chestnut


Pellets from bituminous coal


Pellets from coffee husks


Pellets from grape waste


Hardgrove Grindability Index


Pellets from pine


Refuse derived fuel


Torrefaction and pelletization process


Integrated gasification in combined cycle


  1. 1.
    Bridgwater AV, Toft AJ, Brammer JG (2002) A techno-economic comparison of power production by biomass fast pyrolysis with gasification and combustion. Renew Sust Energ Rev 6:181–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pan YG, Velo E, Roca X, Manyà JJ, Puigjaner L (2000) Fluidized bed co-gasification of residual biomass/poor coal blends for fuel gas production. Fuel 79:1317–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fermoso J, Arias B, Plaza MG, Pevida C, Rubiera F, Pis JJ, García-Peña F, Casero P (2009) High-pressure co-gasification of coal with biomass and petroleum coke. Fuel Process Technol 90:926–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hernández JJ, Aranda-Almansa G, Serrano C (2010) Co-gasification of biomass wastes and coal–coke blends in an entrained flow gasifier: an experimental study. Energ Fuels 24:2479–2488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kumabe K, Hanaoka T, Fujimoto S, Minowa T, Sakanishi K (2007) Co-gasification of woody biomass and coal with air and steam. Fuel 86:684–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Min TJ, Yoshikawa K, Murakami K (2005) Distributed gasification and power generation from solid wastes. Energy 30:2219–2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heschel W, Rweyemamu L, Scheibner T, Meyer B (1999) Abatement of emissions in small-scale combustors through utilisation of blended pellet fuels. Fuel Process Technol 61:223–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mahmoud A, Arlabosse P, Fernandez A (2010) Application of a thermally assisted mechanical dewatering process to biomass. Biomass and Bioenerg. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.08.037
  9. 9.
    Fagernäs L, Brammer J, Wilén C, Lauer M, Verhoeff F (2010) Drying of biomass for second generation synfuel production. Biomass Bioenerg 34:1267–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Svoboda K, Martinec J, Pohořelý M, Baxter D (2009) Integration of biomass drying with combustion/gasification technologies and minimization of emissions of organic compounds. Chem Pap 63:15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Higman C, van der Burgt M (2008) Gasification, 2nd edn. Elsevier, BostonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McKendry P (2002) Energy production from biomass (part 3): gasification technologies. Bioresource Technol 83:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fernando R (2009) Co-gasification and indirect cofiring of coal and biomass. IEA Clean Coal Centre, CCC/158Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maciejewska A, Veringa H, Sanders J, Peteves SD (2006). In: Co-firing of biomass with coal: constraints and role of biomass pre-treatment. Edited by the European Commision, DG JRC, Institute for EnergyGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bridgeman TG, Jones JM, Shield I, Williams PT (2008) Torrefaction of reed canary grass, wheat straw and willow to enhance solid fuel qualities and combustion properties. Fuel 87:844–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    PiIBE (2006) Project for the deployment of biodiesel in Spain. CDTIGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gil MV, Oulego P, Casal MD, Pevida C, Pis JJ, Rubiera F (2010) Mechanical durability and combustion characteristics of pellets from biomass blends. Bioresource Technol 101:8859–8867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    García-Peña F, Coca P (2009) ELCOGAS: R&D activities towards zero emissions IGCC plants. In: Fourth international conference on clean coal technologies, CCT2009, Dresden, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baxter L (2005) Biomass–coal co-combustion: opportunity for affordable renewable energy. Fuel 84:1295–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tabarés JLM, Ortiz L, Granada E, Viar FP (2000) Feasibility study of energy use for densificated lignocellulosic material (briquettes). Fuel 79:1229–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bhattacharya SC, Sett S, Shrestha RM (1989) State of the art for biomass densification. Energy Sources 11:161–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peksa-Blanchard M, Dolzan P, Grassi A, Heinimö J, Junginger M, Ranta T, Walter A (2007) Global wood pellets markets and industry: policy drivers, market status and raw material potential. IEA Bioenergy Task 40Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sultana A, Kumar A, Harfield D (2010) Development of agri-pellet production cost and optimum size. Bioresource Technol 101:5609–5621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Prins MJ, Ptasinski KJ, Janssen FJ (2006) More efficient biomass gasification via torrefaction. Energy 31:3458–3470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Deng J, Wang G, Kuang J, Zhang Y, Luo Y (2009) Pretreatment of agricultural residues for co-gasification via torrefaction. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 86:331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bergman PCA, Boersma AR, Kiel JHA, Prins MJ, Ptasinski KJ, Janssen F (2005) Torrefaction for entrained-flow gasification of biomass. ECN Report, ECN-C-05-067, PettenGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arias B, Pevida C, Fermoso J, Plaza MG, Rubiera F, Pis JJ (2008) Influence of torrefaction on the grindability and reactivity of woody biomass. Fuel Process Technol 89(2):169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bergman PCA (2005) Torrefaction in combination with pelletisation: the TOP process. ECN Report, ECN-C-05-073, PettenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Rubiera
    • 1
  • José Juan Pis
    • 1
  • Covadonga Pevida
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional del Carbón (CSIC)OviedoSpain

Personalised recommendations