Pain is often the most common presenting or associated symptom in hospitalized patients, and patients are frequently more concerned about being in pain than they are about the primary reason for being in the hospital. Outcome benefits from improved pain control vary depending on the patient population and modality used. Epidural anesthesia and analgesia can lead to benefits in terms of cardiovascular and respiratory complications in high-risk patients as well as benefits in terms of gastrointestinal and hematological outcomes. Other modalities, such as intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, may improve pulmonary complications.
KeywordsObstructive Sleep Apnea Respiratory Depression Motion Sickness Acute Setting Present Pain Intensity
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