Substance Abuse



The following are consensus definitions recognized by the American Academy of Pain Medicine, American Pain Society, and American Society of Addiction Medicine:


Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Urine Drug Screen Sympathetic Overactivity Risk Drinking American Pain Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Agabio R, Marras P, Gessa GL, Carpiniello B. Alcohol use disorders, and at-risk drinking in patients affected by a mood disorder, in Cagliari, Italy: sensitivity and specificity of different questionnaires. Alcohol Alcohol. 2007;42(6):575-581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism and National Institute of Health. helping patients who drink too much. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 2005;
  3. 3.
    Saunders JB, Aasland OG, Babor TF, de la Fuente JR, Grant M. Development of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): who collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption–II. Addiction. 1993;88(6):791-804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reinert DF, Allen JP. The alcohol use disorders identification test: an update of research ­findings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31(2):185-199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rumpf HJ, Hapke U, Meyer C, John U. Screening for alcohol use disorders and at-risk drinking in the general population: psychometric performance of three questionnaires. Alcohol Alcohol. 2002;37(3):261-268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ewing JA. Detecting Alcoholism. The CAGE questionnaire JAMA. 1984;252(14):1905-1907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineMorehouse School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations