Endocrine Disease



Surgery and anesthesia stimulate a “stress-response” resulting in production of counter-regulatory hormones, including glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol, while decreasing endogenous insulin. This in turn increases gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, peripheral insulin resistance, and ketogenesis culminating in hyperglycemia.


Thyroid Hormone Adrenal Insufficiency Hypothyroid Patient Thyroid Storm Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCI Medical Center, UCI Hospitalist ProgramUniversity of California, Irvine, College of MedicineOrangeUSA

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