Introduction to Diabetic Neuropathies

  • Andrew J. M. Boulton
  • Loretta Vileikyte


The neuropathies are among the most common long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, affecting up to half of patients. Diabetic neuropathies are characterised by a progressive loss of nerve fibres and may involve both autonomic and somatic divisions of the nervous system.


Glycaemic Control Diabetic Neuropathy Autonomic Neuropathy Future Epidemiological Study Careful Clinical Examination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Boulton AJM, Gries FA, Jervell JA. Guidelines for the diagnosis and outpatient management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabet Med. 1998;15:508-514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dyck PJ, Kratz KM, Karnes JL, et al. The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in a population-based cohort: the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study. Neurology. 1993;43:817-824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boulton AJM, Malik RA, Arezzo JC, et al. Diabetic somatic neuropathies. Diab Care. 2004;27:1458-1486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boulton AJM, Armstrong DG, Albert SF, et al. Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment. Diab Care. 2008;31:1679-1685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tesfaye S, Boulton AJM, Dyck PJ, et al. Diabetic neuropathies: update on definitions, diagnostic criteria, estimation of severity and treatments. Diab Care. 2010;33:2285-2293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greene DA, Feldman EL, Stevens MJ, et al. Diabetic neuropathy. In: Porte D, Sherwin R, Rifkin H, eds. Diabetes Mellitus. East Norwalk: Appleton Lange; 1995.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vinik AI, Park TS, Stansberry KB, et al. Diabetic neuropathies. Diabetologia. 2000;43:957-973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:977-986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abbott CA, Carrington AL, Ashe H, et al. The North-West Diabetes Foot Care Study: incidence of and risk factors for new diabetic foot ulceration in a community-based cohort. Diabet Med. 2002;19:377-384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pirart J. Diabetes mellitus and its degenerative complications: a prospective study of 4,400 patients observed between 1947 and 1973. Diabet Metab. 1977;1:168-188.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Young MJ, Boulton AJM, MacLeod AF, et al. A multicentre study of the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the United Kingdom hospital clinic population. Diabetologia. 1993;36:150-154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ziegler D, Rathmann W, Dickhaus T, et al. Prevalence of polyneuropathy in pre-diabetes and diabetes is associated with abdominal obesity and macroangiopathy: the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Surveys S2 and S3. Diab Care. 2008;31:464-469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singleton AR, Smith AG. Neuropathy associated with prediabetes: what is new in 2007? Curr Diabetes Rep. 2007;7:420-424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) Research Group. The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the development and progression of neuropathy. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122:561-568.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352:837-853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dyck PJ, Davies JL, Wilson DM, et al. Risk factors for severity of diabetic polyneuropathy: intensive longitudinal assessment of the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study cohort. Diab Care. 1999;22:1479-1486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Partanen J, Niskanen L, Lehtinen J, et al. Natural history of peripheral neuropathy in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:89-94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Singleton JR, Smith AG, Bromberg MB. Painful sensory polyneuropathy associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Muscle Nerve. 2001;24:1225-1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sumner CJ, Sheth S, Griffin JW, et al. The spectrum of neuropathy in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Neurology. 2003;60:108-111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tesfaye S, Stevens LK, Stephenson JM, et al. Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its relation to glycaemic control and potential risk factors: the Eurodiab ID M complication study. Diabetologia. 1996;39:1377-1386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adler AI, Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH, et al. Risk factors for diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy: results of the Seattle Prospective Diabetic Foot Study. Diab Care. 1997;20:1162-1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tesfaye S, Chaturvedi N, Eaton S, et al. Vascular risk factors and diabetic neuropathy. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:341-350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boulton AJM, Malik RA. Diabetic neuropathy. Med Clin North Am. 1998;82:909-929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. M. Boulton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Loretta Vileikyte
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Diabetes Research InstituteUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  3. 3.University of MiamiMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations