A Model-Based Soft Sensor to Avoid Explosions in Direct Heaters Due to Skin Point Threshold Overtaking

  • Stefano Baldacci
  • Massimo Hvala
Conference paper


A model-based method, called SkinHBTpassi, to estimate skin temperature in direct flame heater is given.

The knowledge of skin temperatures in a direct flame heater is very important for a mechanical guarantee about heater pipes which could undergo to a thermal stress (or even a thermal shock) with the consequence of a probable failure.

A common practice is to put some thermocouples for skin temperature monitoring along the direct fired face of heater pipes. But also a good practice is to be able to estimate skin temperatures by the simple knowledge of flows and flow temperatures.

This new method, through a quiet complex computation of the view factors between pipes and flames, is able to estimate the heat flux pattern into the radiative part of the oven. The method is neither a shortcut nor a very detailed one.


Heat Transfer Coefficient Skin Temperature View Factor Specific Enthalpy American Petroleum Institute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Petroleum Institute, publication RP-530, “Recommended Practice for the calculation of heater tube, 2nd ed Dec. 1976Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    KTI Corp., Tayseer A. Abdel-Halim, Radiant Heat Flux in direct-fired heater, 1979Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Baldacci
    • 1
  • Massimo Hvala
    • 2
  1. 1.Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente ToscanaArea Prevenzione rischi industriali, ecogestione e tecnologie per la protezione ambientaleFirenzeItaly
  2. 2.PisaItaly

Personalised recommendations