Epidemiology of Osteoporotic Fractures

  • Elaine Dennison
  • Cyrus Cooper


  • Osteoporosis is associated with fragility fractures, particularly of the hip, spine, and distal forearm.

  • The lifetime risk of a fragility fracture is 50% among women and 20% among men aged 50 years.

  • Wide variation in fracture rate occurs between and within populations, reflecting genetic and environmental risk factors.

  • Vertebral fracture is a risk factor for further vertebral fractures and, to a lesser degree, hip and other fractures.

  • While fracture rates are beginning to stabilize in western populations, they continue to rise in Asia.


Vertebral Fracture Osteoporotic Fracture Fragility Fracture Proximal Humerus Vertebral Deformity 
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Further Reading

  1. Black DM, Arden NK, Palermo L, Pearson J, Cummings SR (1999) Prevalent vertebral deformities predict hip fractures and new vertebral deformities but not wrist fractures. J Bone Miner Res 14: 821–828.Google Scholar
  2. Consensus Development Conference (1991) Prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1: 114–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cuddihy MT, Gabriel SE, Crowson CS, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd (1999) Forearm fractures as predictors of subsequent osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int 9: 469–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, et al. (1993) Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. Lancet 341: 72–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ross PD, Davis JW, Epstein R, Wasnich RD (1991) Pre-existing fractures and bone mass predict vertebral fracture incidence. Ann Intern Med 114: 919–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. World Health Organization (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 843: 1–129.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Dennison
  • Cyrus Cooper

There are no affiliations available

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