Standards and Codes

  • Crispin Hales
  • Shayne Gooch


In coming up with a design that meets user needs in the best way possible, tradeoffs must be made amongst the requirements of function, safety, timeliness, cost, ergonomics, the environment, and aesthetics. Established standards and codes help to provide the design engineer with a basis for making judgments such as “how safe is safe enough” in a professionally acceptable manner. The application, interpretation, and development of appropriate standards, codes, and certifications are issues of increasing importance to design engineers, especially with the more global approach to design and manufacture. Not only do the local requirements vary widely from place to place, but also so do user expectations and attitudes concerning the performance of products and equipment. Such factors can create unanticipated delays and additional design costs that are sufficient to jeopardize the future of a complete project, as shown by the example in Hales and Poczynok (2001), especially when combined with cultural and language misunderstandings. This chapter on standards and codes is included simply to highlight a few important issues and to provide a useful list of international contacts for basic information. The massive task of trying to assemble a coherent picture of what standards and codes exist in different countries, and how they all relate to each other, is something that really was not practicable until the Internet became a reality, but now it is possible to get a good overview by visiting the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Website and those of the various organizations listed. For this reason the list has been updated to include the Website address for each contact, both within the text and electronically on the CD accompanying the book.


Quality Management System American Petroleum Institute American National Standard Institute Certification Body Engineering Design Process 


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Some Reference Articles on Safety Standards

  1. Barnett, R.L. (1983). On safety codes and standards. Triodyne Inc. Safety Brief 2 (1), 1–5 ( Scholar
  2. Dilich, M.A., Rudny, D.F. (1989). Compliance with Safety Standards: A Necessary but not Sufficient Condition. Paper ASME 89-DE-1. ASME International, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Hamilton, B.A. (1983). Managing a standards collection in an engineering consulting firm. Special Libraries 74 (1), 28–33.Google Scholar
  4. Hansen, C.A., Hebert, J.J., Dilich, M.A. (1989). Standards Identification and Retrieval for the Design Engineer. Paper ASME 89-DE-2. ASME International, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Hebert, J.J., Uzgiris, S.C. (1989). The Role of Safety Standards in the Design Process. Paper ASME 89-DE-3. ASME International, New York.Google Scholar

Some Reference Articles on International Standards

  1. EC (1986). A Journey Through the EC: Information on the Member States and the Development of the European Community. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Khalaf, K.Y. (1991). The Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO). ASTM Standardization News 19 (9), 48–51.Google Scholar
  3. ANSI Battles EC Code (1991). Tooling & Production 57 (3), 20.Google Scholar
  4. Breitenberg, M. (1991). Questions and Answers on Quality, the ISO 9000 Standard Series, Quality System Registration, and Related Issues (NISTIR 4721). US Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.Google Scholar
  5. EC Testing and Certification Procedures under the Internal Market Program. US Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, Washington, DC, 1 November, 1991.Google Scholar
  6. European Community ′92 Update, Business America. US Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, Washington, DC, 25 February, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. Lipin, O.F. (1991). Gosstandart International: the USSR national system for standardization, metrology, and product quality control. ASTM Standardization News 19 (9), 44–47.Google Scholar
  8. Reihlen, H. (1991). Standardization and certification in Europe — 1992 and beyond. ASTM Standardization News 19 (6), 38–43.Google Scholar
  9. Saunders, M. (1991). ISO 9000 and Marketing in Europe: Should US Manufacturers be Concerned? US Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.Google Scholar
  10. Toth, R.B. (1984). Putting the US standards system into focus with the world. ASTM Standardization News (December), 16-20.Google Scholar
  11. US and EC Improve Market Access Over Testing and Certification. Europe Now. US Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, Washington, DC, September 1991.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Crispin Hales
    • 1
  • Shayne Gooch
    • 2
  1. 1.Triodyne Inc.NorthbrookUSA
  2. 2.University of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

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