Scent Marketing: Making Olfactory Advertising Pervasive

Part of the Human-Computer Interaction Series book series (HCIS)


Store chains and service providers beguile customers with a pleasant shopping atmosphere often realized by installing scent diffusers to evaporate overwhelming fragrances. Such systems are becoming a standard interior of commercial locations as well as public places and are gaining in importance for human computer interaction. A historical, physiological and psychological overview shed a light on different aspects of scent marketing. Current scent marketing technology puts the relevance of olfactory communication for pervasive advertising and human-computer interaction up for discussion and constitutes prospectively technological challenges for olfactory human-computer interaction.


Olfactory Epithelium Olfactory Stimulus Body Odor Olfactory Information Musk Deer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work is supported under the FFG Research Studios Austria program under grant agreement No. 818652 DISPLAYS (Pervasive Display Systems).


  1. 1.
    Ackerl, K., Atzmueller, M., Grammer, K.: The scent of fear. Nero Endocrinol. Lett. 232, 79–84 (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bartzos, F.: Duftmarketing – Eine spezielle Form des Neuromarketings. Master thesis. University of Vienna, Vienna (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bradford, K.D., Desrochers, D.M.: The use of scents to influence consumers: the sense of using scents to make cents. Springer J. Bus. Res. 90, 141–153 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brand, G., Jacquot, L.: Gehirn und Geschlecht. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brehm, J.W.: Theory of Psychological Reactance. Academic, New York (1966)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, D., Katdare, A., Lucas, N.: Chemosignals of fear enhance cognitive performance in humans. Chem. Senses 31, 415–423 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cho, W., Lee, S., Won, J., Choi, S.: Mobile phone having perfume spraying apparatus. US Patent and Trademark Office. No. 7622084 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Classen, C., Howes, D., Synnott, A.: Aroma – The Cultural History of Smell. Routledge, Oxon (1994)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Convisual (2008) Deutsche Erfinder entwickeln Dufthandy-Anwendung. Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  10. 10.
    Corbin, A.: The Foul and the Fragrant: Odor and the French Social Imagination. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1988)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dennis, C.: The sweet smell of success. Nature 428, 362–364 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deshmukh, S.S., Bhalla, U.S.: Representation of odor habituation and timing in the hippocampus. J. Neurosci. 235, 1903–1915 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Emotion: Ein dufter Job. Emotion 06, 94–99 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Emsenhuber, B.: Integration of olfactory media and information in pervasive environments. In: Proceedings of the First International Doctoral Colloquium on Pervasive Computing, Linz (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Emsenhuber, B.: Das olfaktorische Medium – Die Integration olfaktorischer Information in die Mensch-Maschine-Kommunikation. Ph.D. thesis. University of Art, Linz (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Emsenhuber, B., Ferscha, A.: Olfactory interaction zones. In: Adjunct Proceedings of Pervasive 2009, Nara (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frieling, H.: Farbe hilft verkaufen. HansenMuster-Schmidt, Northeim (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greco, P.M., Hunt, S.D., Seuck, J.W.: Communication device having a scent release feature and method thereof. US Patent and Trademark Office, No. 20040203412 (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Haque Design and Research.: Scent of space. (2007). Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  20. 20.
    Hatt, H., Dee, R.: Das Maiglöckchen-Phänomen. Piper, Munich (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Herczeg, M.: Interaktionsdesign. Oldenbourg, Munich (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Herz, R.S.: A naturalistic analysis of autobiographical memories triggered by olfactory visual and auditory stimuli. Chem. Senses 29, 217–224 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Herz, R.: The Scent of Desire: Discovering Our Enigmatic Sense of Smell, Reprint edn. Harper Perennial, New York (14 October 2008) (this is the english version of this book)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Herz, R.S.: Aromatherapy facts and fictions: a scientific analysis of olfactory effects on mood, physiology and behavior. Int. J. Neurosci. 119, 263–290 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Herz, R.S., Schankler, C., Beland, S.: Olfaction, emotion and associative learning, effects on motivated behavior. Motiv. Emotion 28, 363–383 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Higgins, M.: Figs? Coconut sunscreen? Hotels choose their scents. The New York Times. (2006). Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  27. 27.
    Hirt, R.: – Der Blog zum Thema Sensory-Branding (2009). www.­ Accessed 27 May 2009
  28. 28.
    Ishii, H., Ullmer, B.: Tangible bits: towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms. In: Proceedings of CHI 97, March 1997, pp. 234–24. ACM Press, Atalanta (1997)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jütte, R., Lynn, J.: A History of the Senses: From Antiquity to Cyberspace. Polity, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Keye, J.N.: Symbolic olfactory display. Master thesis, MIT, Massachusetts (2001)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kloock, D., Spahr, A.: Medientheorien: eine Einführung. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich (2000)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lehrner, J., Marwinski, G., Lehr, S., Johran, P., Deecke, L.: Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol. Behav. 86, 92–95 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Michell, D.J., Kahn, B.E., Knasko, S.C.: There’s something in the air: effects of congruent or incongruent ambient odor on consumer decision making. J. Consum. Res. 22, 229–238 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Morrin, M., Ratneshwar, S.: The impact of ambient scent on evaluation, attention and memory for familiar and unfamiliar brands. J. Bus. Res. 49, 157–165 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nicholson, S., Forrow, S., Delaney, K.: The scent of danger. (2005). Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  36. 36.
    NTT Communications.: Movie enhanced with internet-based fragrance system. NTT Com Press Release. (2007). Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  37. 37.
    Paech, A.: Das aroma des Kinos. (1999). Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  38. 38.
    Penn, D.J., Oberzaucher, E., Grammer, K., Fischer, G., Soini, H.A., Wiesler, D., Novotny, M.V., Dixon, S.J., Xu, Y., Brereton, R.G.: Individual and gender fingerprints in human body odour. J. R. Soc. Interface 4(13) (2007)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Picard, R.W.: Affective Computing. MIT Press, Cambridge/London (1997)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Raab, J.: Soziologie des Geruchs. UVK, Konstanz (2001)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rasche, S., Toetter, B., Adler, J., Tschapek, A., Doerner, J., Kurtenbach, S., Hatt, H., Meyer, H., Warscheid, B., Neuhaus, E.: Tmem16b is specifically expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. Chem. Senses 353, 239–245 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rouby, C.: Olfaction, Taste, and Cognition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sauer, A.E., Karg, G., Koch, U.T., De Kramer, J.J., Milli, R.: A portable EAG system for the measurement of pheromone concentrations in the field. Chem. Senses 175, 543–553 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stafford, B.: Body Criticism: Imaging the Unseen in Enlightenment Art and Medicine. MIT Press, Cambridge (1993)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stöhr, A.: Air-Design als Erfolgsfaktor im Handel. Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag, Wiesbaden (1998)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sturmheit, T.: Sex findet doch nicht im Kopf statt. (2008). Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  47. 47.
    Süskind, P.: Perfume. Penguin, London (2006)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    TriSenx.: ScentDome. Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  49. 49.
    Umweltbundesamt für Mensch und Umwelt.: Duftstoffe: Wenn Angenehmes zur Last werden kann. (2006). Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  50. 50.
    Vlahos, J.: Scent and sensibility. The New York Times (2007)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Warren, C., Molnar, T.: Sense of smell institute (2010). Accessed 2 June 2010
  52. 52.
    Watson, L.: Jacobson’s Organ: And the Remarkable Nature of Smell. W.W. Norton, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wilson, D.A., Stevenson, R.J.: Learning to Smell. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (2006)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wyszynski, B., Yamanaka, T., Nakamoto, T.: Recording and reproducing citrus flavors using odor recorder. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1061, 388–393 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johannes Kepler UniversityLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations