2002: Deep Fritz Befuddles Kramnik, Drawing 4–4 in Bahrain



It took more than five years to again bring together the human world chess ­champion and, well, let’s say, one of the world’s best chess engines. This time the human was Vladimir Kramnik and the engine was Deep Fritz. Their eight-game match took place in Le Royal Meridiene Hotel in Manama, Bahrain, October 4–15, 2002. The host, Emir Sheikh Hamad Bin Issa al-Khaleifa offered a prize of $1 million to Kramnik if he won, $800,000 if he drew, and $600,000 if he lost. The match would be our first opportunity to test whether Deep Blue’s 1997 victory was a one-time happening, of dubious legitimacy as some argued, or a real victory.


Careless Error Final Game Strange Move Tactical Strength 

Suggest Readings

  1. K. Müller, “The Clash of the Titans: Kramnik – Fritz Bahrain,” ICGA Journal Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 233–238, December, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. Mathias Wüllenweber, “The match from Fritz’ view point,” ICCA Journal, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 239–240, December, 2002.Google Scholar
  3. T. Karlsson, “The Swedish Rating List,” ICCA Journal, Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 199, September, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. You will find a list of over 100 articles on the following page: http://www.chessbase.com/newsdetail.asp?newsid=538
  5. An analysis of the match by German Grandmaster Carsten Mueller: http://www.scribd.com/doc/3579/Mueller-Kramnik-vs-Deep-Fritz-2002

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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