Advertisement

Lasers for Resurfacing

  • Rungsima Wanitphakdeedecha
  • Tina S. Alster
Chapter

Abstract

Many signs of cutaneous photodamage are amenable to treatment with a variety of ablative and non-ablative lasers, light sources, and fractional photothermolysis. Ablative laser skin resurfacing offers the most substantial clinical improvement, but is associated with several weeks of postoperative recovery.

Keywords

Intense Pulse Light Laser Resurface Photodamaged Skin Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation Fractional Photothermolysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Taylor CR, Stern RS, Leyden JJ, Gilchrest BA. Photoaging/photodamage and photoprotection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1-15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lavker RM. Cutaneous aging: chronological versus photoaging. In: Gilchrest BA, ed. Photodamage. Cambridge: Blackwell Science; 1995:123-135.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alster TS. Cutaneous resurfacing with CO2 and erbium:YAG lasers: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative considerations. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;103:619-632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation. Science. 1983;22:524-527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shapshay SM, Strong MS, Anastasi GW, Vaughan CW. Removal of rhinophyma with the CO2 laser. A preliminary report. Arch Otolaryngol. 1980;106:257-259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dufresne RG, Garrett AB, Bailin PL, et al. CO2 laser treatment of chronic actinic cheilitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;19:876-878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alster TS, Kauvar ANB, Geronemus RG. Histology of high-energy pulsed CO2 laser resurfacing. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 1996;15:189-193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tanzi EL, Lupton JR, Alster TS. Review of lasers in dermatology: four decades of progress. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:1-31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lanzafame RJ, Naim JO, Rogers DW, Hinshaw JR. Comparisons of continuous-wave, chop wave, and super pulsed laser wounds. Lasers Surg Med. 1988;8:119-124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alster TS, Garg S. Treatment of facial rhytides with a high-energy pulsed CO2 laser. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996;98:791-794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alster TS. Preoperative preparation for CO2 laser resurfacing. In: Coleman WP, Lawrence N, eds. Skin Resurfacing. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1998:171-179.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hevia O, Nemeth AJ, Taylor JR. Tretinoin accelerates healing after trichloroacetic acid chemical peel. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:678-682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    West TB, Alster TS. Effect of pretreatment on the incidence of hyperpigmentation following cutaneous CO2 laser resurfacing. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25:15-17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Walia S, Alster TS. Cutaneous CO2 laser resurfacing infection rate with and without prophylactic antibiotics. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25:857-861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bernstein LJ, Kauvar ANB, Grossman MC, et al. The short- and long-term side effects of CO2 laser resurfacing. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23:519-525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alster TS, West TB. Effect of topical vitamin C on postoperative CO2 resurfacing erythema. Dermatol Surg. 1998;24:331-334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alster TS, Lupton JR. An overview of cutaneous laser resurfacing. Clin Plast Surg. 2001;28:37-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alster TS, Nanni CA, Williams CM. Comparison of four CO2 resurfacing lasers: a clinical and histopathologic evaluation. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25:153-159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walsh JT, Deutsch TF. Pulsed CO2 laser tissue ablation: measurement of the ablation rate. Lasers Surg Med. 1988;8:264-275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fitzpatrick RE, Ruiz-Esparza J, Goldman MP. The depth of thermal necrosis using the CO2 laser: a comparison of the superpulsed mode and conventional mode. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1991;17:340-344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stuzin JM, Baker TJ, Baker TM, et al. Histologic effects of the high-energy pulsed CO2 laser on photo-aged facial skin. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;99:2036-2050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Walsh JT, Flotte TJ, Anderson RR, et al. Pulsed CO2 laser tissue ablation: effect of tissue type and pulse duration on thermal damage. Lasers Surg Med. 1988;8:108-118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rubach BW, Schoenrock LD. Histological and clinical evaluation of facial resurfacing using a CO2 laser with the computer pattern generator. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;123:929-934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fitzpatrick RE, Smith SR, Sriprachya-anunt S. Depth of vaporization and the effect of pulse stacking with a high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40:615-622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alster TS, Lupton JR. Prevention and treatment of side effects and complications of cutaneous laser resurfacing. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;109:308-316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lowe NJ, Lask G, Griffin ME, et al. Skin resurfacing with the ultrapulse CO2 laser: observations on 100 patients. Dermatol Surg. 1995;21:1025-1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alster TS. Comparison of two high-energy, pulsed CO2 lasers in the treatment of periorbital rhytides. Dermatol Surg. 1996;22:541-545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Apfelberg DB. Ultrapulse CO2 laser with CPG scanner for full-face resurfacing of rhytides, photoaging, and acne scars. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;99:1817-1825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lask G, Keller G, Lowe NJ, et al. Laser skin resurfacing with the Silk Touch flash scanner for facial rhytides. Dermatol Surg. 1995;21:1021-1024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Waldorf HA, Kauvar ANB, Geronemus RG. Skin resurfacing of fine to deep rhytides using a char-free CO2 laser in 47 patients. Dermatol Surg. 1995;21:940-946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ratner D, Viron A, Puvion-Dutilleul F, et al. Pilot ultrastructural evaluation of human preauricular skin before and after high-energy pulsed CO2 laser treatment. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134:582-587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ratner D, Tse Y, Marchell N, et al. Cutaneous laser resurfacing. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41:365-389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fulton JE, Barnes T. Collagen shrinkage (selective dermoplasty) with the high-energy pulsed CO2 laser. Dermatol Surg. 1998;24:37-41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ross E, Naseef G, Skrobal M, et al. In vivo dermal collagen shrinkage and remodeling following CO2 laser resurfacing. Lasers Surg Med. 1996;18:38.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flor PJ, Spurr OK. Melting equilibrium for collagen fibers under stress: elasticity in the amorphous state. J Am Chem Soc. 1960;83:1308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Flor PJ, Weaver ES. Helix coil transition in dilute aqueous collagen solutions. J Am Chem Soc. 1989;82:4518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Alster TS. Commentary on: increased smooth muscle actin, factor XIII a, and vimentin-positive cells in the papillary dermis of CO2 laser-debrided porcine skin. Dermatol Surg. 1998;24:155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    West TB, Alster TS. Effect of botulinum toxin type A on movement-associated rhytides following CO2 laser resurfacing. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25:259-261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Katz BE, MacFarlane DF. Atypical facial scarring after isotretinoin therapy in a patient with a previous dermabrasion. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30:852-853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Roegnik HH, Pinski JB, Robinson K, et al. Acne, retinoids, and dermabrasion. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1985;11:396-398.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    David L, Ruiz-Esparza J. Fast healing after laser skin resurfacing: the minimal mechanical trauma technique. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23:359-361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ruiz-Esparza J, Gomez JMB. Long-term effects of one general pass laser resurfacing: a look at dermal tightening and skin quality. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25:169-174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Alster TS, Hirsch RJ. Single-pass CO2 laser skin resurfacing of light and dark skin: extended experience with 52 patients. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2003;5:39-42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tanzi EL, Alster TS. Single-pass CO2 versus multiple-pass Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing: a comparison of postoperative wound healing and side-effect rates. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:80-84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Walsh JT, Flotte TJ, Deutsch TF. Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: effect of pulse duration and tissue type on thermal damage. Lasers Surg Med. 1989;9:327-337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ross EV, Anderson RR. The erbium laser in skin resurfacing. In: Alster TS, Apfelberg DB, eds. Cosmetic Laser Surgery. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 1999:57-84.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Alster TS. Clinical and histologic evaluation of six erbium:YAG lasers for cutaneous resurfacing. Lasers Surg Med. 1999;24:87-92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hibst R, Kaufmann R. Effects of laser parameters on pulsed Er:YAG laser ablation. Lasers Med Sci. 1991;6:391-397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hohenleutner U, Hohenleutner S, Baumler W, et al. Fast and effective skin ablation with an Er:YAG laser: determination of ablation rates and thermal damage zones. Lasers Surg Med. 1997;20:242-247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Alster TS, Lupton JR. Erbium:YAG cutaneous laser resurfacing. Dermatol Clin. 2001;19:453-466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Khatri KA, Ross EV, Grevelink JM, et al. Comparison of erbium:YAG and CO2 lasers in resurfacing of facial rhytides. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135:391-397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goldman MP, Marchell N, Fitzpatrick RE. Laser skin resurfacing of the face with a combined CO2/Er:YAG laser. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26:102-104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sapijaszko MJA, Zachary CB. Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing. Dermatol Clin. 2002;20:87-96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pozner JM, Goldberg DJ. Histologic effect of a variable pulsed Er:YAG laser. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26:733-736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ross EV, McKinlay JR, Sajben FP, et al. Use of a novel erbium laser in a Yucatan minipig: a study of residual thermal damage (RTD), ablation, and wound healing as a function of pulse duration. Lasers Surg Med. 1999;15:17.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Newman JB, Lord JL, Ash K, et al. Variable pulse erbium:YAG laser skin resurfacing of perioral rhytides and side-by-side comparison with CO2 laser. Lasers Surg Med. 1998;24:1303-1307.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF, Marchell N. Collagen tightening induced by CO2 laser versus erbium:YAG laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2000;27:395-403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tanzi EL, Alster TS. Effect of a semiocclusive silicone-based dressing after ablative laser resurfacing of facial skin. Cosmet Dermatol. 2003;16:13-16.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Batra RS, Ort RJ, Jacob C, et al. Evaluation of a silicone occlusive dressing after laser skin resurfacing. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:1317-1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nanni CA, Alster TS. Complications of CO2 laser resurfacing: an evaluation of 500 patients. Dermatol Surg. 1998;24:315-320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sriprachya-anunt S, Fitzpatrick RE, Goldman MP, et al. Infections complicating pulsed CO2 laser resurfacing for photo-aged facial skin. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23:527-536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    McDaniel DH, Ash K, Lord J, et al. Accelerated laser resurfacing wound healing using a triad of topical antioxidants. Dermatol Surg. 1998;24:661-664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Horton S, Alster TS. Preoperative and postoperative considerations for cutaneous laser resurfacing. Cutis. 1999;64:399-406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fisher AA. Lasers and allergic contact dermatitis to topical antibiotics, with particular reference to bacitracin. Cutis. 1996;58:252-254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Alster TS, Nanni CA. Pulsed-dye laser treatment of hypertrophic burn scars. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998;102:2190-2195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Friedman PM, Geronemus RG. Use of the 308-nm excimer laser for postresurfacing leukoderma. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:824-825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Grimes PE, Bhawan J, Kim J, et al. Laser resurfacing-induced hypopigmentation: histologic alteration and repigmentation with topical photochemotherapy. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:515-520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rohrer TE. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing-experience of the first 200 cases. Aesthet Dermatol Cosmet Surg. 1999;1:19-30.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tanzi EL, Alster TS. Side effects and complications of variable-pulsed erbium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser skin resurfacing: extended experience with 50 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:1524-1529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rostan EF, Fitzpatrick RE, Goldman MP. Laser resurfacing with a long pulse erbium:YAG laser compared to the 950 ms pulsed CO2 laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2001;29:136-141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ross VE, Miller C, Meehan K, et al. One-pass CO2 versus multiple-pass Er:YAG laser resurfacing in the treatment of rhytides: a comparison side-by-side study of pulsed CO2 and Er:YAG lasers. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:709-715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zachary CB. Modulating the Er:YAG laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2002;26:223-226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Alster TS, Lupton JR. Are all infrared lasers equally effective in skin rejuvenation. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2002;21:274-279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zelickson B, Kilmer S, Bernstein E, et al. Pulsed dye laser therapy for sun damaged skin. Lasers Surg Med. 1999;25:229-236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zelickson B, Kist D. Effect of pulse dye laser and intense pulsed light source on the dermal extracellular matrix remodeling. Lasers Surg Med. 2000;12:68.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bjerring P, Clement M, Heickendorff L, et al. Selective non-ablative wrinkle reduction by laser. J Cutan Laser Ther. 2000;2:9-15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Goldberg DJ, Cutler KB. Non-ablative treatment of rhytides with intense pulsed light. Lasers Surg Med. 2000;26:196-200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bitter PH. Non-invasive rejuvenation of photodamaged skin using serial, full-face intense pulsed light treatments. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26:835-843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Weiss RA, Weiss MA, Beasley KL. Rejuvenation of photoaged skin: 5 years results with intense pulsed light of the face, neck, and chest. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:1115-1119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hardaway CA, Ross EV. Non-ablative laser skin remodeling. Dermatol Clin. 2002;20:97-111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Goldberg DJ, Whitworth J. Laser skin resurfacing with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23:903-907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Goldberg DJ, Metzler C. Skin resurfacing utilizing a low-fluence Nd:YAG laser. J Cutan Laser Ther. 1999;1:23-27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lee MW. Combination visible and infrared lasers for skin rejuvenation. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2002;21:288-300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Menaker GM, Wrone DA, Williams RM, et al. Treatment of facial rhytids with a non-ablative laser: a clinical and histologic study. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25:440-444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kelly KM, Nelson S, Lask GP, et al. Cryogen spray cooling in combination with non-ablative laser treatment of facial rhytides. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135:691-694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Goldberg DJ. Non-ablative subsurface remodeling: clinical and histologic evaluation of a 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser. J Cutan Laser Ther. 1999;1:153-157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Goldberg DJ. Full-face non-ablative dermal remodeling with a 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26:915-918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Trelles MA, Allones I, Luna R. Facial rejuvenation with a non-ablative 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser. A preliminary clinical and histologic evaluation. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:111-116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fatemi A, Weiss MA, Weiss RA. Short-term histologic effects of non-ablative resurfacing: results with a dynamically cooled millisecond-domain 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:172-176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Goldberg DJ, Rogachefsky AS, Silapunt S. Non-ablative laser treatment of facial rhytides: a comparison of 1450 nm diode laser treatment with dynamic cooling as opposed to treatment with dynamic cooling alone. Lasers Surg Med. 2002;30:79-81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hardaway CA, Ross EV, Paithankar DY. Non-ablative cutaneous remodeling with a 1.45 micron mid-infrared diode laser: phase II. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2002;4:9-14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tanzi EL, Williams CM, Alster TS. Treatment of facial rhytides with a non-ablative 1450-nm diode laser: a controlled clinical and histologic study. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:124-129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tanzi EL, Alster TS. The treatment of transverse neck lines with a 1450-nm diode laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2002;14(Suppl):33.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tanzi EL, Alster TS. Comparison of a 1450-nm diode laser and a 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of atrophic facial scars: a prospective clinical and histologic study. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:152-157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mordon S, Capon A, Creusy C. In vivo experimental evaluation of non-ablative skin remodeling using a 1.54 μm laser with surface cooling. Lasers Surg Med. 2000;27:1-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ross EV, Sajben FP, Hsia J, et al. Non-ablative skin remodeling: selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination. Lasers Surg Med. 2000;26:186-195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lupton JR, Williams CM, Alster TS. Non-ablative laser skin resurfacing using a 1540 nm erbium:glass laser: a clinical and histologic analysis. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:833-835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fournier N, Dahan S, Barneon G, et al. Non-ablative remodeling: a 14-month clinical ultrasound imaging and profilometric evaluation of a 1540 nm Er:glass laser. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:926-931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ruiz-Esparza J, Gomez JB. The medical face lift: a non-invasive, non-surgical approach to tissue tightening in facial skin using non-ablative radiofrequency. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:325-332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Alster TS, Tanzi EL. Improvement of neck and cheek laxity with a nonablative radiofrequency device: a lifting experience. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:305-307.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Doshi SN, Alster TS. Combination radiofrequency and diode laser for treatment of facial rhytides and skin laxity. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2005;7:11-15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Manstein D, Herron GS, Sink RK, et al. Fractional photother­molysis: a new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury. Lasers Surg Med. 2004;34:426-438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tannous ZS, Astner S. Utilizing fractional resurfacing in the treatment of therapy-resistant melasma. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2005;7:39-43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rokhsar CK, Fitzpatrick RE. The treatment of melasma with fractional photothermolysis: a pilot study. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:1645-1650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Geronemus RG. Fractional photothermolysis: current and future applications. Lasers Surg Med. 2006;38:169-176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Alster TS, Tanzi EL, Lazarus M. The use of fractional laser photothermolysis for the treatment of atrophic scars. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:295-299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wanner M, Tanzi EL, Alster TS. Fractional photothermolysis: treatment of facial and nonfacial cutaneous photodamage with a 1,550-nm erbium-doped fiber laser. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:23-28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Laubach HJ, Tannous Z, Anderson RR, Manstein D. Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis. Lasers Surg Med. 2006;38:142-149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Graber E, Tanzi EL, Alster TS. Side effects and complications of fractional laser photothermolysis: experience with 961 treatments. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34(3):301-305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj HospitalMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Washington Institute of Dermatologic Laser SurgeryGeorgetown University Medical CenterWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations