Advertisement

Laser/Light Application in Dental Procedures

  • Steven P. A. Parker
Chapter

Abstract

This Chapter explores the use of laser technologies in dentistry in the following areas:
  • Background – History, perceived and actual application of laser energy, dynamics of laser tissue interaction with oral tissue, uptake of laser technology in general dental practice.

  • Use of lasers with oral soft tissue – soft tissue management, soft tissue procedures adjunctive to dental restorative procedures, resection of pathological tissue.

  • Use of lasers with oral hard tissue – tooth cavity preparation, removal of caries, hard tissue modification, surgical excision of bone.

  • Use of lasers in anti-bacterial techniques adjunctive to dental surgery – laser use in periodontology, endodontics, implantology.

  • Low-level laser use in dental surgery.

Keywords

Laser Energy Root Canal Periodontal Pocket Tooth Tissue Soft Tissue Procedure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

Background

  1.  1.
    Maiman TH. Stimulated optical radiation in ruby. Nature. 1960;187:493-494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2.  2.
    Myers TD, Myers WD, Stone RM. First soft tissue study utilising a pulsed Nd:YAG dental laser. Northwest Dent. 1989;68:14-17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3.  3.
    Hibst R, Keller U. Experimental studies of the application of the Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances: 1. Measurement of ablation rate. Lasers Surg Med. 1989;9:338-344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4.  4.
    Moshonov J, Stabholz A, Leopold Y, Rosenberg I, Stabholz A. Lasers in dentistry. Part B – interaction with biological tissues and the effect on the soft tissues of the oral cavity, the hard tissues of the tooth and the dental pulp. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim. 2001;18:21-28, 107-108.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Use of Lasers with Oral Soft Tissue

  1.  1.
    Bayat A, Arscott G, Ollier WE, McGrouther DA, Ferguson MW. Keloid disease: clinical relevance of single versus multiple site scars. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:28-37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2.  2.
    Funato N, Moriyama K, Baba Y, Kuroda T. Evidence for apoptosis induction in myofibroblasts during palatal mucoperiosteal repair. J Dent Res. 1999;78:1511-1517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3.  3.
    Kaminer R, Liebow C, Margarone JE 3rd, Zambon JJ. Bacteremia following laser and conventional surgery in hamsters. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1990;48:45-48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4.  4.
    Nanami T, Shiba H, Ikeuchi S, Nagai T, Asanami S, Shibata T. Clinical applications and basic studies of laser in dentistry and oral surgery. Keio J Med. 1993;42:199-201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5.  5.
    Fisher SE, Frame JW, Browne RM, Tranter RM. A comparative histological study of wound healing following CO2 laser and conventional surgical excision of canine buccal mucosa. Arch Oral Biol. 1983;28:287-291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6.  6.
    Spencer P, Cobb CM, Wieliczka DM, Glaros AG, Morris PJ. Change in temperature of subjacent bone during soft tissue laser ablation. J Periodontol. 1998;69:1278-1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7.  7.
    Pogrel MA, McCracken KJ, Daniels TE. Histologic evaluation of the width of soft tissue necrosis adjacent to carbon dioxide laser incisions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1990;70:564-568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8.  8.
    Spencer P, Cobb CM, Wieliczka DM, Glaros AG, Morris PJ. Change in temperature of subjacent bone during soft tissue laser ablation. J Periodontol. 1998;69:1278-1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9.  9.
    Hall RR. The healing of tissues incised by a carbon dioxide laser. Br J Surg. 1971;58:222-225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wyman A, Duffy S, Sweetland HM, Sharp F, Rogers K. Preliminary evaluation of a new high power diode laser. Lasers Surg Med. 1992;12:506-509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hall RR, Hill DW, Beach AD. A carbon dioxide surgical laser. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1971;48:181-188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Esen E, Haytac MC, Oz IA, Erdogan O, Karsli ED. Gingival melanin pigmentation and its treatment with the CO2 laser. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:522-527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tal H, Oegiesser D, Tal M. Gingival depigmentation by erbium:YAG laser: clinical observations and patient responses. J Periodontol. 2003;74:1660-1667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yousuf A, Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kinoshita J, Matsumoto K. Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation with the semiconductor diode laser: a case report. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2000;18:263-266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lanning SK, Waldrop TC, Gunsolley JC, Maynard JG. Surgical crown lengthening: evaluation of the biological width. J Periodontol. 2003;74:468-474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gracis S, Fradeani M, Celletti R, Bracchetti G. Biological integration of aesthetic restorations: factors influencing appearance and long-term success. Periodontol 2000. 2001;27:29-44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adams TC, Pang PK. Lasers in aesthetic dentistry. Dent Clin North Am. 2004;48:833-860. vi.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Use of Lasers with Oral Hard Tissue

  1.  1.
    Bassi G, Chawla S, Patel M. The Nd:YAG laser in caries removal. Br Dent J. 1994;177:248-250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2.  2.
    Harris DM, White JM, Goodis H, et al. Selective ablation of surface enamel caries with a pulsed Nd:YAG dental laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2002;30:342-350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3.  3.
    Cox CJ, Pearson GJ, Palmer G. Preliminary in vitro investigation of the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation on enamel and dentine. Biomaterials. 1994;15:1145-1151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4.  4.
    Yamada MK, Watari F. Imaging and non-contact profile analysis of Nd:YAG laser- irradiated teeth by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dent Mater J. 2003;22:556-568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5.  5.
    Srimaneepong V, Palamara JE, Wilson PR. Pulpal space pressure and temperature changes from Nd:YAG laser irradiation of dentin. J Dent. 2002;30:291-296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6.  6.
    Lan WH, Chen KW, Jeng JH, Lin CP, Lin SK. A comparison of the morphological changes after Nd-YAG and CO2 laser irradiation of dentin surfaces. J Endod. 2000;26:450-453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7.  7.
    Takamori K, Furukawa H, Morikawa Y, Katayama T, Watanabe S. Basic study on vibrations during tooth preparations caused by high-speed drilling and Er:YAG laser irradiation. Lasers Surg Med. 2003;32:25-31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8.  8.
    Glockner K, Rumpler J, Ebeleseder K, Stadtler P. Intrapulpal temperature during preparation with the Er:YAG laser compared to the conventional burr: an in vitro study. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1998;16:153-157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9.  9.
    Pelagalli J, Gimbel CB, Hansen RT, Swett A, Winn DW 2nd. Investigational study of the use of Er:YAG laser versus dental drill for caries removal and cavity preparation – phase I. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1997;15:109-115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Belikov AV, Erofeev AV, Shumilin VV, Tkachuk AM. Comparative study of the 3um laser action on different hard tissue samples using free running pulsed Er-doped YAG, YSGG, YAP and YLF lasers. Proc SPIE. 1993;2080:60-67.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mercer C, Anderson P, Davis G. Sequential 3D X-ray microtomographic measurement of enamel and dentine ablation by an Er:YAG laser. Br Dent J. 2003;194:99-104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hibst R, Keller U. Mechanism of Er:YAG laser-induced ablation of dental hard substances. Proc SPIE. 1993;1880:156-162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Corona SA, de Souza AE, Chinelatti MA, Borsatto MC, Pécora JD, Palma-Dibb RG. Effect of energy and pulse repetition rate of Er: YAG laser on dentin ablation ability and morphological analysis of the laser-irradiated substrate. Photomed Laser Surg. 2007;25(1):26-33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hibst R. Mechanical effects of erbium:YAG laser bone ablation. Lasers Surg Med. 1992;12:125-130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thomsen S. Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions. Photochem Photobiol. 1991;53:825-835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fried NM, Fried D. Comparison of Er:YAG and 9.6-microm TEA CO2 lasers for ablation of skull tissue. Lasers Surg Med. 2001;28:335-343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sasaki KM, Aoki A, Ichinose S, Ishikawa I. Ultrastructural analysis of bone tissue irradiated by Er:YAG laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2002;31:322-332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang X, Zhang C, Matsumoto K. In vivo study of the healing processes that occur in the jaws of rabbits following perforation by an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Lasers Med Sci. 2005;20:21-27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walsh JT Jr, Deutsch TF. Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: measurement of ablation rates. Lasers Surg Med. 1989;9:327-337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chinelatti MA, Ramos RP, Chimello DT, Borsatto MC, Pecora JD, Palma-Dibb RG. Influence of the use of Er:YAG laser for cavity preparation and surface treatment in microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations. Oper Dent. 2004;29:430-436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Corona SA, Borsatto MC, Pecora JD, De SA Rocha RA, Ramos TS, Palma-Dibb RG. Assessing microleakage of different class V restorations after Er:YAG laser and bur preparation. J Oral Rehabil. 2003;30:1008-1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Niu W, Eto JN, Kimura Y, Takeda FH, Matsumoto K. A study on microleakage after resin filling of class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1998;16:227-231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gutknecht N, Apel C, Schafer C, Lampert F. Microleakage of composite fillings in Er,Cr:YSGG laser-prepared class II cavities. Lasers Surg Med. 2001;28:371-374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Use of Lasers in Anti-Bacterial Techniques Adjunctive to Dental Surgery: Laser Use in Periodontology, Endodontics, Implantology

  1.  1.
    Rossmann JA, Cobb CM. Lasers in periodontal therapy. Periodontol 2000. 1995;9:150-164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2.  2.
    Israel M, Rossmann JA, Froum SJ. Use of the carbon dioxide laser in retarding epithelial migration: a pilot histological human study utilizing case reports. J Periodontol. 1995;66:197-204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3.  3.
    Williams TM, Cobb CM, Rapley JW, Killoy WJ. Histologic evaluation of alveolar bone following CO2 laser removal of connective tissue from periodontal defects. Int J Periodontics Restor Dent. 1995;15:497-506.Google Scholar
  4.  4.
    Wilder-Smith P, Arrastia AA, Schell MJ, Liaw LH, Grill G, Berns MW. Effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation and root planing on the root surface: structural and thermal effects. J Periodontol. 1995;66:1032-1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5.  5.
    Rizoiu IM, Eversole LR, Kimmel AI. Effects of an erbium, chromium:yttrium, scandium, gallium garnet laser on mucocutaneous soft tissues. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1996;82:386-395.Google Scholar
  6.  6.
    Yukna RA, Evans G, Vastardis S, Carr RL. Human periodontal regeneration following laser assisted new attachment procedure. Paper presented at: IADR/AADR/CADR 82nd General Session; March 10–13, 2004; Honolulu.Google Scholar
  7.  7.
    Harris DM, Yessik M. Nd:YAG better than diode. Lasers Surg Med. 2004;35:206-213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8.  8.
    Grassi RF, Pappalardo S, Frateiacci A, et al. Antibacterial effect of Nd:YAG laser in periodontal pockets decontamination: an in vivo study [article in Italian]. Minerva Stomatol. 2004;53:355-359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9.  9.
    Moritz A, Schoop U, Goharkhay K, et al. Treatment of periodontal pockets with a diode laser. Lasers Surg Med. 1998;22:302-311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coffelt DW, Cobb CM, MacNeill S, Rapley JW, Killoy WJ. Determination of energy density threshold for laser ablation of bacteria. An in vitro study. J Clin Periodontol. 1997;24:1-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Folwaczny M, Mehl A, Haffner C, Benz C, Hickel R. Root substance removal with Er:YAG laser radiation at different parameters using a new delivery system. J Periodontol. 2000;71:147-155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frentzen M, Braun A, Aniol D. Er:YAG laser scaling of diseased root surfaces. J Periodontol. 2002;73:524-530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eberhard J, Ehlers H, Falk W, Acil Y, Albers HK, Jepsen S. Efficacy of subgingival calculus removal with Er:YAG laser compared to mechanical debridement: an in situ study. J Clin Periodontol. 2003;30:511-518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aoki A, Ando Y, Watanabe H, Ishikawa I. In vitro studies on laser scaling of subgingival calculus with an erbium:YAG laser. J Periodontol. 1994;65:1097-1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Siqueira Junior JF. Strategies to treat infected root canals. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2001;29:825-837.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Piccolomini R, D’Arcangelo C, D’Ercole S, Catamo G, Schiaffino G, De Fazio P. Bacteriologic evaluation of the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in experimental infected root canals. J Endod. 2002;28:276-278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rooney J, Midda M, Leeming J. A laboratory investigation of the bactericidal effect of a Nd:YAG laser. Br Dent J. 1994;176:61-64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fegan S, Steiman H. Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial effects of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation: an in vitro study. J Endod. 1995;21:415-417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moritz A, Gutknecht N, Gohrakhay K, Schoop U, Wernisch J, Sperr W. In vitro irradiation of infected root canals with a diode laser: results of microbiologic, infrared spectrometric, and stain penetration examinations. Quintessence Int. 1997;28:205-209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Le Goff A, Dautel-Morazin A, Guigand M, Vulcain JM, Bonnaure-Mallet M. An evaluation of the CO2 laser for endodontic disinfection. J Endod. 1999;25:105-108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McKinley I, Ludlow M. Hazards of laser smoke during endodontic therapy. J Endod. 1994;20:558-559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hardee M, Miserendino L, Kos W, Walia H. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation. J Endod. 1994;20:377-380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schoop U, Kluger W, Moritz A, Nedjelik N, Georgopoulos A, Sperr W. Bactericidal effect of different laser systems in the deep layers of dentin. Lasers Surg Med. 2004;35:111-116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jha D, Guerrero A, Ngo T, Helfer A, Hasselgren G. Inability of laser and rotary instrumentation to eliminate root canal infection. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137:67-70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mombelli A. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment considerations in peri-implantitis. Curr Opin Periodontol. 1997;4:127-136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leonhardt A, Renvert S, Dahlen G. Microbial findings at failing implants. Clin Oral Implants Res. 1999;10:339-345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Martins MC, Abi-Rached RS, Shibli JA, Araujo MW, Marcantonio E Jr. Experimental peri-implant tissue breakdown around different dental implant surfaces: clinical and radiographic evaluation in dogs. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19:839-848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shibli JA, Martins MC, Lotufo RF, Marcantonio E Jr. Microbiologic and radiographic analysis of ligature induced peri-implantitis with different dental implant surfaces. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18:383-390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kourtis SG, Sotiriadou S, Voliotis S, Challas A. Private practice results of dental implants. Part I: survival and evaluation of risk factors – Part II: surgical and prosthetic complications. Implant Dent. 2004;13:373-385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oh TJ, Yoon J, Misch CE, Wang HL. The causes of early implant bone loss: myth or science? J Periodontol. 2002;73:322-333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Augthun M, Tinschert J, Huber A. In vitro studies on the effect of cleaning methods on different implant surfaces. J Periodontol. 1998;69:857-864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Buchter A, Meyer U, Kruse-Losler B, Joos U, Kleinheinz J. Sustained release of doxycycline for the treatment of peri-implantitis: randomised controlled trial. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;42:439-444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klinge B, Gustafsson A, Berglundh T. A systematic review of the effect of anti-infective therapy in the treatment of peri-implantitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2002;29(Suppl 3):213-225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tang Z, Cao C, Sha Y, Lin Y, Wang X. Effects of non-surgical treatment modalities on peri-implantitis. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;37:173-175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bunetel L, Guerin J, Agnani G, et al. In vitro study of the effect of titanium on Porphyromonas gingivalis in the presence of metronidazole and spiramycin. Biomaterials. 2001;22:3067-3072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Haas R, Dörtbudak O, Mensdorff-Pouilly N, Mailath G. Elimination of bacteria on different implant surfaces through photosensitization and soft laser. Clin Oral Implants Res. 1997;8:249-254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kato T, Kusakari H, Hoshino E. Bactericidal efficacy of carbon dioxide laser against bacteria-contaminated implants and subsequent cellular adhesion to irradiated area. Lasers Surg Med. 1998;23:299-309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kreisler M, Kohnen W, Marinello C, et al. Bactericidal effect of the Er:YAG laser on dental implant surfaces: an in vitro study. J Periodontol. 2002;73:1292-1298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miller RJ. Treatment of the contaminated implant surface using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Implant Dent. 2004;13:165-170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ichikawa T, Hirota K, Kanitani H, Miyake Y, Matsumoto N. In vitro adherence of Streptococcus constellatus to dense hydroxyapatite and titanium. J Oral Rehabil. 1998;25:125-127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Low-Level Laser Use in Dental Surgery

  1.  1.
    Passarella S. Increase of proton electrochemical potential and ATP synthesis in rat liver mitochondria irradiated in vitro by helium-neon laser. FEBS Lett. 1984;175:95-99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2.  2.
    Karu T. Photobiological fundamentals of low powered laser therapy. IEEE J Quantum Electron. 1987;23:1703-1717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3.  3.
    Dube A, Bansal H, Gupta PK. Modulation of macrophage structure and function by low level He-Ne laser irradiation. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2003;2:851-855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4.  4.
    Stadler I, Evans R, Kolb B, et al. In vitro effects of low-level laser irradiation at 660 nm on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lasers Surg Med. 2000;27:255-261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5.  5.
    Kovacs IB, Mester E, Gorog P. Stimulation of wound healing with laser beam in the rat. Experientia. 1974;30:1275-1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6.  6.
    Enwemeka CS, Parker JC, Dowdy DS, Harkness EE, Sanford LE, Woodruff LD. The efficacy of low-power lasers in tissue repair and pain control: a meta-analysis study. Photomed Laser Surg. 2004;22:323-329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7.  7.
    Laakso EL, Cramond T, Richardson C, Galligan JP. Plasma ACTH and β-endorphin levels in response to low level laser therapy for myofascial trigger points. Laser Ther. 1994;3:133-142.Google Scholar
  8.  8.
    Montesinos M. Experimental effects of low power laser in encephalon and endorphin synthesis. J Eur Med Laser Assoc. 1988;1:2-7.Google Scholar
  9.  9.
    Kimura Y, Wilder-Smith P, Yonaga K, Matsumoto K. Treatment of dentine hypersensitivity by laser: a review. J Clin Periodontol. 2000;27:715-721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Taube S, Piironen J, Ylipaavalniemi P. Helium-neon laser therapy in the prevention of post-operative swelling and pain after wisdom tooth extraction. Proc Finn Dent Soc. 1990;86:23-27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schindl A, Neuman R. Low intensity laser therapy is an effective treatment for recurrent herpes simplex infection: results from a randomised double-blind placebo controlled study. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:221-223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pinheiro AL, Cavalcanti ET, Pinheiro TI, Alves MJ, Manzi CT. Low-level laser therapy in the management of disorders of the maxillofacial region. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1997;15:181-183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Howell RM, Cohen DM, Powell GL, Green JG. The use of low energy laser therapy to treat aphthous ulcers. Ann Dent. 1988;47:16-18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wong SF, Wilder-Smith P. Pilot study of laser effects on oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy. Cancer J. 2002;8:247-254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kelsey WP, Blankenau RJ, Powell GL, Barkmeier WW, Stormberg EF. Power and time requirements for use of the argon laser to polymerize composite resins. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1992;10:273-278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Powell GL, Blankenau RJ. Effects of argon laser curing on dentin shear bond strengths. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1996;14:111-113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blankenau RJ, Kelsey WP, Powell GL, Shearer GO, Barkmeier WW, Cavel WT. Degree of composite resin polymerization with visible light and argon laser. Am J Dent. 1991;4:40-42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bjelkhagen H, Sundström F. A clinically applicable laser luminescence method for the early detection of dental caries. IEEE J Quantum Electron. 1981;17:266-270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bjelkhagen H, Sundström F, Angmar-Månsson B, Ryden H. Early detection of enamel caries by the luminescence excited by visible laser light. Swed Dent J. 1982;6:1-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Josselin de Jong E, Sundström F, Westerling H, Tranaeus S, ten Bosch JJ, Angmar-Månsson B. A new method for in vivo quantification of changes in initial enamel caries with laser fluorescence. Caries Res. 1995;29:2-7. doi: de Josselin de Jong E.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hibst R, Gall R. Development of a diode laser-based fluorescence detector. Caries Res. 1998;32:294.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lussi A, Megert B, Longbottom C, Reich E, Francescut P. Clinical performance of a laser fluorescence device for detection of occlusal caries lesions. Eur J Oral Sci. 2001;109:14-19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stookey GK. Optical methods – quantitative light fluorescence. J Dent Res. 2004;83(Suppl):C84-C88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Heinrich-Weltzien R, Kühnisch J, van der Veen M, de Josselin de Jong E, Stosser L. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) – a potential method for the dental practitioner. Quintessence Int. 2003;34:181-188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hafström-Björkman U, Sundström F, de Josselin de Jong E, Oliveby A, Angmar-Månsson B. Comparison of laser fluorescence and longitudinal microradiography for quantitative assessment of in vitro enamel caries. Caries Res. 1992;26:241-247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Emami Z, Al-Khateeb S, de Josselin de Jong E, Sundström F, Trollsås K, Angmar-Månsson B. Mineral loss in incipient caries lesions quantified with laser fluorescence and longitudinal micro­radiography. A methodologic study. Acta Odontol Scand. 1996;54:8-13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ando M, van Der Veen MH, Schemehorn BR, Stookey GK. Comparative study to quantify demineralized enamel in deciduous and permanent teeth using laser - and light induced fluorescence techniques. Caries Res. 2001;35:464-470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lennon AM, Buchalla W, Switalski L, Stookey GK. Residual caries detection using visible fluorescence. Caries Res. 2002;36:315-319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fried D, Xie J, Shafi S, Featherstone JD, Breunig TM, Le C. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization ­sensitive optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2002;7:618-627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jones RS, Staninec M, Fried D. Imaging artificial caries under composite sealants and restorations. J Biomed Opt. 2004;9:1297-1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Soukos NS, Wilson M, Burns T, Speight PM. The photodynamic effects of toluidine blue on human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts and Streptococcus sanguis evaluated in vitro. Lasers Surg Med. 1996;18:253-259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williams JA, Pearson GJ, Colles MJ, Wilson M. The photo-activated antibacterial action of toluidine blue O in a collagen matrix and in carious dentine. Caries Res. 2004;38:530-536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vlacic J, Meyers IA, Walsh LJ. Combined CPP-ACP and photoactivated disinfection (PAD) therapy in arresting root surface caries: a case report. Br Dent J. 2007;203(8):457-459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Williams JA, Pearson GJ, John Colles M. Antibacterial action of photoactivated disinfection {PAD} used on endodontic bacteria in planktonic suspension and in artificial and human root canals. J Dent. 2006;34:363-371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bonsor SJ, Nichol R, Reid TM, Pearson GJ. Microbiological evaluation of photo-activated disinfection in endodontics (an in vivo study). Br Dent J. 2006;200:337-341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lee MT, Bird PS, Walsh LJ. Photo-activated disinfection of root canals: a new role for lasers in endodontics. Aust Endod J. 2004;30:93-98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Goldstein RE. In-office bleaching: where we came from, where we are today. J Am Dent Assoc. 1997;128(Suppl):11S-15S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang C, Wang X, Kinoshita J, et al. Effects of KTP laser irradiation, diode laser, and LED on tooth bleaching: a comparative study. Photomed Laser Surg. 2007;25(2):91-95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Walsh LJ, Liu JY, Verheyen P. Tooth discolorations and its treatment using KTP laser-assisted tooth whitening. J Oral Laser Appl. 2004;4:7-21.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Walsh LJ, Liu JY, Verheyen P. Tooth discolorations and its treatment using KTP laser-assisted tooth whitening. J Oral Laser Appl. 2004;4:7-21.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McCance AM, Moss JP, Wright WR, Linney AD, James DR. A three-dimensional soft tissue analysis of 16 skeletal class III patients following bimaxillary surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;30:221-232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    McCance AM, Moss JP, Fright WR, James DR, Linney AD. A three dimensional analysis of soft and hard tissue changes following bimaxillary orthognathic surgery in skeletal III patients. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;30:305-312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Commer P, Bourauel C, Maier K, Jager A. Construction and testing of a computer-based intraoral laser scanner for determining tooth positions. Med Eng Phys. 2000;22:625-635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Denissen HW, van der Zel JM, van Waas MA. Measurement of the margins of partial-coverage tooth preparations for CAD/CAM. Int J Prosthodont. 1999;12:395-400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Harrison JA, Nixon MA, Fright WR, Snape L. Use of hand-held laser scanning in the assessment of facial swelling: a preliminary study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;42:8-17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kocabalkan E, Turgut M. Variation in blood flow of supporting tissue during use of mandibular complete dentures with hard acrylic resin base and soft relining: a preliminary study. Int J Prosthodont. 2005;18(3):210-213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gleissner C, Kempski O, Peylo S, Glatzel JH, Willershausen B. Local gingival blood flow at healthy and inflamed sites measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. J Periodontol. 2006;77(10):1762-1771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Strobl H, Moschen I, Emshoff I, Emshoff R. Effect of luxation type on pulpal blood flow measurements: a long-term follow-up of luxated permanent maxillary incisors. J Oral Rehabil. 2005;32(4):260-265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tarnowski CP, Ignelzi MA Jr, Wang W, Taboas JM, Goldstein SA, Morris MD. Earliest mineral and matrix changes in force-induced musculoskeletal disease as revealed by Raman microspectroscopic imaging. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:64-71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bjordal JM, Couppe C, Ljunggren A. Low level laser therapy for tendinopathies: evidence of a dose-related pattern. Phys Ther Rev. 2001;6:91-100.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Toraman Alkurt M, Peker I, Deniz Arisu H, Bala O, Altunkaynak B. In vivo comparison of laser fluorescence measurements with conventional methods for occlusal caries detection. J Dent. 2007;35(8):679-682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Silva BB, Severo NB, Maltz M. Validity of diode laser to monitor carious lesions in pits and fissures. Lasers Med Sci. 2007;35(8):679-682.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Private Dental PracticeHarrogateUK
  2. 2.A.C. Faculty of MedicineUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly

Personalised recommendations