Research and Future Directions
In retrospect, it is interesting to realize the way technology and new developments are sometimes so obvious and simple. Looking back over the history of laser surgery, laser tissue ablation (removal) was developed over 40 years. It became popular in the 1980s and 1990s especially because of skin resurfacing, but faded at the end of 1990s due to side effects, and almost vanished from most clinical practices. In 2004, with the introduction of new fractionated methods of skin resurfacing, the same old lasers developed decades ago became popular again, by delivering their beams in microscopic patterns. The technology to make arrays of microscopic laser beams has been available for 40 years, but not used this way in dermatology. The limiting factor is not the technology, but the way we look at it.
KeywordsOptical Coherence Tomography Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Photodynamic Therapy Actinic Keratosis Human Amniotic Membrane
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Prof. Irene Kochevar, PhD, Min Yao, MD, PhD (Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA) and Dr. Sandy Tsao, MD (Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA), for providing the photograph and discussion about photochemical tissue bonding; Prof. Michael Hamblin, PhD and Aaron C-H Chen (Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA) for discussion about low-level light therapy; Prof. B. Hyle Park, PhD (Department of Bioengineering, University of California Riverside, CA) and Prof. Johannes F. de Boer, PhD (Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands) for providing the photograph about optical coherence tomography.
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