Psychological Aspects to Consider Within Laser Treatments

  • Dee Anna Glaser


Cosmetic treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade with the advent of new techniques and devices, such as lasers. According to recent statistics released by the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), there were nearly 11.5 million surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic procedures performed in the United States in 2006. The majority were nonsurgical with over 2.2 million laser procedures performed for hair removal, skin resurfacing and treatment of leg veins. Approximately 93% of laser skin resurfacing procedures were performed with non ablative techniques.1


Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Disorder Personality Disorder Manic Episode Borderline Personality Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1.  1.
    The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Cosmetic surgery national data bank page. Available at: Accessed November 30, 2007.
  2.  2.
    Sarwer D, Crerand C. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments. Body Image. 2004;1:99-111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3.  3.
    Edgerton M, Jacobson W, Meyer E. Surgical-psychiatric study of patients seeking plastic (cosmetic) surgery: ninety-eight consecutive patients with minimal deformity. Br J Plast Surg. 1960;13:136-145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4.  4.
    Rankin M, Borah G. National plastic surgical nursing survey. Plast Surg Nurs. 2006;26(4):178-183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5.  5.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychia­tric Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  6.  6.
    Phillips K, Dufresne RJ. Body dysmorphic disorder: a guide for primary care physicians. Prim Care. 2002;29:99-111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7.  7.
    Phillips K. The Broken Mirror: Understanding and Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  8.  8.
    Phillips K. Body dysmorphic disorder and depression: theoretical considerations and treatment strategies. Psychiatr Q. 1999;70(4):313-331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9.  9.
    Rief W, Buhlmann U, Wilhelm S, Borkenhagen A, Brahler E. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder: a population based survey. Psychol Med. 2006;36(6):877-885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castle DJ, Phillips KA, eds. Disorders of Body Image. Hampshire: Wrightson Biomedical; 2002.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vulink N, Sigurdsson V, Kon M, Bruijnzeel-Koomen C, Westenberg H, Denys D. Body dysmorphic disorder in 3-8% of patients in outpatient dermatology and plastic surgery clinics. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006;150(2):97-100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Phillips K, Dufresne RJ, Wilkel C, Vittorio C. Rate of body dysmorphic disorder in dermatology patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:436-441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Phillips K, Grant J, Siniscalchi J, Albertini R. Surgical and nonpsychiatric medical treatment of patients with body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics. 2001;42:504-510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Veale D, Boocock A, Gournay K, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder: a survey of 50 cases. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;169(2):196-201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Phillips K, Albertini R, Rasmussen S. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in body dysmorphic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:381-388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Golden R, Gaynes B, Ekstrom R, et al. The efficacy of light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders: a review and meta-analysis of the evidence. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:656-662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kessler R, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas K, Walters E. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:593-602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kessler R, Chiu W, Demler O, Merikangas K, Walters E. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:617-627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Williams D, González H, Neighbors H, et al. Prevalence and distribution of major depressive disorder in African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites: results from the National Survey of American Life. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:305-315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Robinson R. Poststroke depression: prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and disease progression. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:376-387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McDonald W, Richard I, DeLong M. Prevalence, etiology, and treatment of depression in Parkinson’s disease. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:363-375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huffman J, Smith F, Blais M, Beiser M, Januzzi J, Fricchione G. Recognition and treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98:319-324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reiche E, Nunes S, Morimoto H. Stress, depression, the immune system, and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5:617-625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wittchen H, Kessler R, Pfister H, Lieb M. Why do people with anxiety disorders become depressed? A prospective-longitudinal community study. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2000;406:14-23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Merikangas K, Zhang H, Avenevoli S, Acharyya S, Neuenschwander M, Angst J. Longitudinal trajectories of depression and anxiety in a prospective community study: the Zurich Cohort Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:993-1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mahoney J, Drinka T, Abler R, et al. Screening for depression: single question versus GDS. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994;42:1006-1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arroll B, Khin N, Kerse N. Screening for depression in primary care with two verbally asked questions: cross sectional study. BMJ. 2003;327:1144-1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Whooley M, Avins A, Miranda J, Browner W. Case-finding instruments for depression. Two questions are as good as many. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12:439-445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thase M. Evaluating antidepressant therapies: remission as the optimal outcome. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(13):18-25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Persad E. Electroconvulsive therapy in depression. Can J Psychiatry. 1990;35(2):175-182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Keck PJ, McElroy S, Arnold L. Bipolar disorder. Med Clin North Am. 2001;85:645-661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Benazzi F. Bipolar disorder–focus on bipolar II disorder and mixed depression. Lancet. 2007;369:935-945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Suppes T, Dennehy E, Gibbons E. The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(9):23-30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hilty D, Brady K, Hales R. A review of bipolar disorder among adults. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:201-213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Das A, Olfson M, Gameroff M, et al. Screening for bipolar disorder in a primary care practice. JAMA. 2005;293:956-963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hirschfeld R, Williams J, Spitzer R, et al. Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: the mood disorder questionnaire. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1873-1875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Part A: Treatment recommendations for patients with bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1-50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Drugs for psychiatric disorders. Treat Guide Med Lett. 2006;4(46): 35-46.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bowden C. Novel treatments for bipolar disorder. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001;10:661-671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Soloff P, Lis J, Kelly T, Cornelius J, Ulrich R. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1316-1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Skodol A, Oldham J, Gallaher P. Axis II comorbidity of substance use disorders among patients referred for treatment of personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:733-738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cadoret R, Leve L, Devor E. Genetics of aggressive and violent behavior. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1997;20:301-323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Caspi A, Begg D, Dickson N, et al. Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997;73:1052-1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gerstley L, McLellan A, Alterman A, Woody G, Luborsky L, Prout M. Ability to form an alliance with the therapist: a possible marker of prognosis for patients with antisocial personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146:508-512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Markovitz P, Calabrese J, Schulz S, Meltzer H. Fluoxetine in the treatment of borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:1064-1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Soloff PH. Symptom-oriented psychopharmacology for personality disorders. J Pract Psychiatry Behav Health. 1998;4:3-11.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lieb K, Zanarini M, Schmahl C, Linehan M, Bohus M. Borderline personality disorder. Lancet. 2004;364:453-461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Histrionic personality disorder. Available at: Accessed November 30, 2007.
  49. 49.
    Britton R. Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice. J Anal Psychol. 2004;49(4):477-490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Villemarette-Pittman N, Stanford M, Greve K, Houston R, Mathias C. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and behavioral disinhibition. J Psychol. 2004;138(1):5-22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fineberg N, Sharma P, Sivakumaran T, Sahakian B, Chamberlain S. Does obsessive-compulsive personality disorder belong within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum? CNS Spectr. 2007;12(6):467-482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mancebo M, Eisen J, Grant J, Rasmussen S. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical characteristics, diagnostic difficulties, and treatment. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2007;17(4):197-204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goodwin R. Anxiety disorders and the onset of depression among adults in the community. Psychol Med. 2002;32:1121-1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brown T, O’Leary T, Barlow D. Generalised Anxiety Disorder. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-Step Treatment Manual. New York: Guilford; 2001.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wirt S, Wallace V, Rogalla C. Laser therapy for patients with vascular malformations. Plast Surg Nurs. 1997;17(4):200-204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Clymer M, Fortune D, Reinisch L, Toriumi D, Werkhaven J, Ries W. Interstitial Nd:YAG photocoagulation for vascular malformations and hemangiomas in childhood. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;124(4):431-436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Leaute-Labreze C, Boralevi F, Pedespan J, Meymat Y, Taieb A. Pulsed dye laser for Sturge-Weber syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2002;87(5):434-435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hirschfeld R, Williams J, Spitzer R, et al. Development and vali­dation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: the mood disorder questionnaire. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1873-1875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologySaint Louis University School of MedicineSaint LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations