Failures of units or systems are generally classified into two failure modes: Catastrophic failure in which units fail by some sudden shock, and degradation failure in which units fail by physical deterioration suffered from some damage. In the latter case, units fail when the total damage due to shocks has exceeded a critical failure level. This is called a cumulative damage model or shock model with additive damage and can be described theoretically by a cumulative process  in stochastic processes. Damage models can be applied to actual units that are working in architecture, industry, service, information, and computers, and were summarized .
KeywordsDamage Model Damage Level Replacement Policy Plan Time Total Damage
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