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Experimental Studies in Face Transplantation: Primate Model

  • Eduardo D. Rodriguez
  • Gerhard S. Mundinger
  • Rolf N. Barth
  • Helen G. Hui-Chou
  • Steven T. Shipley
  • Luke S. Jones
  • Stephen T. Bartlett
Chapter

Abstract

In offering optimal reconstruction for severe facial disfigurement, the advent of human face transplantation constitutes a landmark achievement in medicine and stands as a historical testament to the creativity, intelligence, ingenuity, and boldness of the human species. Facial allotransplantation has been modeled in rodents, canines, swine, and lagomorphs. However, human and rodent immune systems are dissimilar to a degree that precludes translation of tolerance induction protocols to humans. Nonhuman primates have long been used as translational models of human immunology and transplant immunobiology due to recent evolutionary divergence and shared major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II polymorphisms. We have developed a reproducible heterotopic model of nonhuman primate facial CTA permissive of long-term rejection-free survival. The purpose of this chapter is to share our experience in the development and maturation of this model, from surgical technique and immunosuppressive strategies, to experimental results and future directions.

Keywords

Graft Versus Host Disease Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction Acute Rejection Episode Recipient Vessel Composite Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

CTA

composite tissue allotransplantation

EBV

Epstein–Barr virus

GVHD

graft versus host disease

IHC

immunohistochemical staining

LCV

lymphocryptovirus

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MLR

mixed lymphocyte reaction

MMF

mycophenolate mofetil

PTLD

posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder

STR

short-tandem repeat

VBM

vascularized bone marrow

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Arthur Nam, Aruna Panda, Debra Kukuruga, Cinthia Drachenberg, Amir H. Dorafshar, and Theresa Alexander for their dedicated work on this project.

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Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo D. Rodriguez
    • 1
  • Gerhard S. Mundinger
  • Rolf N. Barth
  • Helen G. Hui-Chou
  • Steven T. Shipley
  • Luke S. Jones
  • Stephen T. Bartlett
  1. 1.Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma CenterJohns Hopkins Hospital/University of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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