Experimental Studies in Face Transplantation: Swine Model

  • Yur-Ren Kuo


Face composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) was recently achieved in a human subject. However, the side effects of long-term immunosuppression and chronic rejection still need to be concerned. The goal of this chapter is to introduce swine hemifacial transplantation for preclinical studies. To design the hemifacial orthotopic transplant consisted of ear cartilage, auricular nerve, parotid gland and lymphoid tissue, muscle with surrounding hemifacial skin paddle, the vascular territories of the composite flap supplied by the superficial temporal artery, and its branches originating from the carotid artery were defined by angiography anatomic studies. The experimental results revealed that this model is suitable to investigate the new strategies for preclinical facial allotransplantation studies. Monitoring and modulation of early rejection in allo-skin and gland lymphoid tissue is a useful strategy to evaluate CTA survival.


Common Carotid Artery Parotid Gland Large Animal Model External Jugular Vein Superficial Temporal Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



cyclosporine A


composite tissue allotransplantation


major histocompatibility complex


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Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryChang Gung Memorial Hospital – Kaohsiung Medical CenterKaohsiungTaiwan

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