Cellular Therapies in Face Transplantation

  • Maria Z. Siemionow
  • Maria Madajka
  • Joanna Cwykiel


The main purpose of cellular therapy application in face transplantation is the continuous need to develop new strategies that would eliminate use of toxic immunosuppressive protocols. Cellular therapy in transplantology can significantly benefit allograft survival and shorten healing time. Cells utilized for therapeutic purpose are isolated mostly from bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissues. They have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in the transplanted tissue, and have immunomodulatory activity. Most of the cellular therapies such as regulatory T-cells, dendritic and chimeric cells are still in the experimental stage. Molecular characterization of these cells as well as the mechanism of their participation in allograft acceptance and rejection is not well established and will contribute to the future of modern transplantology.


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Hepatocyte Growth Factor Cell Fusion Graft Versus Host Disease Cellular Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Adipocyte cell


Antigen-presenting cell


Adipose stem cells


Bone marrow


Bone marrow derived cell


Bone marrow stromal cell


Cyclosporine A


Composite tissue allotransplantation


Dendritic cell


Fused cell


Graft versus host disease


Hepatocyte growth factor


Insulin growth factor-1






monoclonal antibody


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Major histocompatibility complex


Mesenchymal stem cell


Polyethylene glycol


T-cell receptor


Tumor necrosis factor


Vascular endothelial growth factor


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Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Z. Siemionow
    • 1
  • Maria Madajka
  • Joanna Cwykiel
  1. 1.Department of Plastic SurgeryCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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