The Military Relevance of Face Composite Tissue Allotransplantation and Regenerative Medicine Research

  • Robert G. Hale


Maxillofacial battle injuries created the need for plastic and maxillofacial reconstructive surgery during World War I (WWI). Devastating maxillofacial injuries challenged the surgical professions to provide form and function to the defects inflicted by penetrating trauma on the battlefield. Local, regional, and distant flap transfers were developed to treat maxillofacial battle injuries in WWI and while still valued procedures, multiple surgical steps, donor site morbidity and limited esthetic-functional outcomes are often the result. During the 1980s, the advent of microsurgery added an invaluable tool to the reconstructive surgeons’ armamentarium. However, despite significant technical advances, the results following major traumatic war injuries are less than satisfactory, both esthetically and functionally. Facial allotransplantation may offer an invaluable alternative to traditional reconstructive options.


Service Member Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Facial Defect Maxillofacial Injury Composite Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





Ear, Nose, and Throat


Inter-maxillary Fixation


Institute of Surgical Research


Negative pressure wound therapy


Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons


World War I



The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private view of the author and should not be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Department of Defense or the US Government; the author is an employee of the US Government.

All photographs courtesy of COL Robert G Hale.


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Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Craniomaxillofacial ResearchU.S. Army Institute of Surgical ResearchSan AntonioUSA

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