Methods of Assessment of Cortical Plasticity in Patients Following Amputation, Replantation, and Composite Tissue Allograft Transplantation

  • Amanda Mendiola
  • Maria Z. Siemionow


The brain is constantly adapting to new inputs from the environment. New noninvasive techniques are available to scrupulously study cortical plasticity. Several studies have proven that changes in neural pathways occur due to denervation from injury such as amputation. Changes that occur rapidly are likely due to unmasking of established synapses that are latent, while changes that occur over long periods of time are more likely due to establishment of new neural connections. Cortical reorganization that occurs from traumatic amputation has been shown to be reversible with replantation and transplantation. With the new field of composite tissue transplantation, such as hand or face, it is critical to be aware of these changes in order to choose potential patients and to modify their rehabilitation based on our understanding of the cortical reorganization that occurs over time.


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Evoke Potential Motor Threshold Motor Evoke Potential Amplitude Cortical Plasticity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Blood oxygenation level dependent


Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Gamma-aminobutyric acid




Oxygenated hemoglobin


Intracortical facilitation


Motor-evoked potentials


Motor threshold




Premotor cortex supplementary motor area (SMA)


Supplementary motor area


Short interval intracortical inhibition


Transcranial magnetic stimulation


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Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryAkron General medical centerAkronUSA

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