Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation after Face Transplantation

  • Pamela L. Dixon
  • Xiaoming Zhang
  • Mathieu Domalain
  • Ann Marie Flores
  • Vernon W.-H. Lin


Our face is the first thing that others notice and remember about us. Our faces, however, serve more than aesthetic importance and value. The function the face plays in basic every day activities cannot be overstated. The face plays an important role in functional needs such as speech, communicative competence, eye protection, and emotional expressiveness. However, the ability to use these functions following face transplantation may not be complete. Therefore, Physical medicine and rehabilitation is a necessary aspect of the rehabilitation process following this procedure. It is necessary for both the patient and transplant team to realize the importance of PT, OT, and SLP and their role in recovery. Face transplantation offers a new area for the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation specialist to explore and provide an invaluable service.


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Facial Nerve Occupational Therapist Facial Muscle Facial Movement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Activities of daily living




Facial disability index


Facial Grading Scale


Functional Independence Measure


Independent activities of daily living


International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health


Occupational therapy


Physical therapy


Speech language pathology


World Health Organization



The authors wish to thank Angela Broadnax OTR/L, Brian Hedman SLP, Ela Plow Ph.D., PT, and Vinoth Ranganathan MSE, M.B.A. for their editorial comments and assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela L. Dixon
  • Xiaoming Zhang
  • Mathieu Domalain
  • Ann Marie Flores
  • Vernon W.-H. Lin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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