Reliability of Electronic Assemblies Under Mechanical Shock Loading

  • T. T. Mattila
  • T. Laurila
  • V. Vuorinen
  • J. K. Kivilahti


The emphasis of this chapter is placed on describing the loading condition under drop testing of electronic devices and the analysis of the failure modes and mechanisms of high-density component boards under mechanical shock loading conditions. The failure modes and mechanisms under drop impact loading are markedly different from those typically observed in thermally cycled component boards. Reliability of different material combinations under the tests is reported, and the associated failure modes and mechanisms are discussed. Because the reliability of electronic assemblies under mechanical shock loading is highly dependent on the ability of intermetallic layers to withstand the stresses produced during drop impacts, the formation and properties of different interfacial regions are discussed in detail. Furthermore, it is shown that alloying and impurity elements can have strong effects on the intermetallic layers in the solder interconnections and the drop reliability of component boards.


Intermetallic Layer Bulk Solder Under Bump Metallization Solder Interconnection Print Wiring Board 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Mattila TT, Kivilahti JK (2004) Impact of printed wiring board coatings on the reliability of lead-free chip scale package interconnections. J Mater Res 19(11):3214–3223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mattila TT, Kivilahti JK (2010) The role of recrystallization in the failure mechanism of SnAgCu solder interconnections under thermomechanical loading. IEEE Trans Compon Packaging Technol 33(3):629–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mattila TT (2005) Reliability of high-density lead-free solder interconnections under thermal cycling and mechanical shock loading, Espoo, HUT-EPT-13,, Otamedia, p 202
  4. 4.
    Mattila TT, Laurila T, Kivilahti JK (2007) Metallurgical factors behind the reliability of high density lead-free interconnections. In: Suhir E, Wong CP, Lee YC (eds) Micro-and opto-electronic materials and structures: physics, mechanics, design, reliability, packaging, vol 1. Springer, New York, pp 313–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mattila TT, Marjamäki P, Kivilahti JK (2006) Reliability of CSP components under mechanical shock loading. IEEE Trans Compon Packaging Technol 29(4):787–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mattila TT, Kivilahti JK (2005) Failure mechanisms of lead-free CSP interconnections under fast mechanical loading. J Electron Mater 34(7):969–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mattila TT, James R, Nguyen L, Kivilahti JK (2006) Effect of temperature on the drop reliability of electronic assemblies. In: The proceedings of the 57th electronic component and technology conference, Reno, CA, May 29–June 1, 2007, IEEE/EIA CPMTGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mattila TT, Kaloinen E, Syed A, Kivilahti JK (2006) Reliability of SnAgCu interconnections with minor additions of Ni or Bi under mechanical shock loading at elevated temperatures. In: The proceedings of the 57th electronic component and technology conference, Reno, CA, May 29–June 1, 2007, IEEE/EIA CPMTGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mattila TT, Šimeček J, Kivilahti JK (2006) Failure modes of solder interconnections under mechanical shock loading at elevated temperatures. In: The proceedings of the 1st electronics systemintegration technology conference, Dresden, Germany, September 5–7, 2007, IEEE/EIA CPMT, pp 195–202Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mattila TT, Marjamäki P, Nguyen L, Kivilahti JK (2006) Reliability of wafer-level chip scale packages under mechanical shock loading. In: The proceedings of the 56th electronic component and technology conference, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, 2006, IEEE/EIA CPMT, pp 95–101Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mattila TT, Kivilahti JK (2006) Reliability lead-free interconnections under consecutive thermal and mechanical loadings. J Electron Mater 35(2):250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marjamäki P, Mattila TT, Kivilahti JK (2006) A comparative study of the failure mechanisms encountered in drop and large amplitude vibration tests. In: The proceedings of the 56th electronic component and technology conference, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, 2006, IEEE/EIA CPMTGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    JESD22-B111 (2003) Board level drop test method of components for handheld electronic products. JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, p 16Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marjamäki P (2007) Vibration test as a new method for studying the mechanical reliability of solder interconnections under shock loading conditions, Doctoral dissertation. Helsinki University of Technology, (to be published)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reinikainen TO, Marjamäki P, Kivilahti JK (2005) Deformation characteristics and microstructural evolution of SnAgCu solder joints. In: The proceedings of the 6th EuroSimE conference, Berlin, Germany, April 18–20, 2005, IEEE, pp 91–98Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nikander R (1999) Characterization of the mechanical properties of the dilute tin based solder alloys, Espoo, master’s theses, Helsinki University of Technology, p 79Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reinikainen T, Kivilahti JK (1999) Deformation behavior of dilute SnBi(0.5 to 6 at. pct) solid solutions. Metallurgical Mater Trans A 30:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Amagai M (2006) A study of nano particles in SnAg-based lead free solders for intermetallic compounds and drop test performance. In: The proceedings of the 56th electronic components technology conference, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, 2006, IEEE/CPMT, pp 1170–1190Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Amagai M, Watanabe M, Omiya M, Kishimoto K, Shibuya T (2002) Mechanical characterization of Sn–Ag-based lead-free solders. Microelectron Reliab 42(6):951–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Che FX, Luan JE, Baraton X (2008) Effect of silver content and nickel dopant on mechanical properties of Sn-Ag-based solders. In: The proceedings of the 58th electronic components technology conference, Orlando, FL, May 27–30, 2008, IEEE/CPMT, pp 485–490Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Garner L, Sane S, Suh D, Byrne T, Dani A, Martin T, Mello M, Patel M, Williams R (2005) Finding solutions to the challenges in package interconnect reliability. Intel Technol J 9(4):297–308Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tanaka M, Sasaki T, Kobayashi T, Tatsumi K (2006) Improvement in drop shock reliability of Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu BGA interconnects by Ni addition. In: The proceedings of the 56th electronic components technology conference, San Diego, CA, March 31–June 2, 2006, IEEE/CPMT, pp 78–84Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Laurila T, Vuorinen V, Kivilahti JK (2005) Interfacial reactions between lead-free solders and common base materials. Mater Sci Eng R 49(1–2):1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bader WG (1969) Dissolution of Au, Ag, Pd, Pt, Cu and Ni in a Molten Tin-Lead Solder. Welding J Res Suppl 48(12):551–557Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bader WG (1980) Dissolution and formation on intermetallics in the soldering process. In: Proceedings of the conference on physical metallurgy and metal joining, St. Louis, MO, Oct 16–17. Warrendale, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haimovich J (1989) Intermetallic compound growth in Tin and Tin-Lead platings over nickel and its effects on solderability. Welding J Res Suppl 68(3):102–111Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vuorinen V, Laurila T, Yu H, Kivilahti JK (2006) Phase formation between Lead-free SnAgCu Solder and Ni(P)/Au Finished on PWB. J Appl Phys 99(2):3530–3535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bae K, Kim S (2001) Interdiffusion analysis of the soldering reactions in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu couples. J Electron Mater 30(11):1452Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Choubey A, Yu H, Osterman M, Pecht M, Yun F, Younghong L, Ming X (2008) Intermetallics characterization of lead-free solder joints under isothermal aging. J Electron Mater 37(8):1130Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moon K, Boettinger W, Kattner U, Biancaniello F, Handwerker C (2000) Experimental and thermodynamic assessment of Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys. J Electron Mater 29(10):1122Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    IPMA (2009) The thermodynamic databank for interconnection and packaging materials. Helsinki University of Technology, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhedwar H, Ray K, Kulkarni S, Balasubramanian V (1972) Kirkendall effect studies in copper-tin diffusion couples. Scr Metallurgica 6:919Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Onishi M, Fujibuchi H (1975) Reaction-Diffusion in the Cu-Sn system. Trans Jpn Inst Metals 16:539Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oh M (1994) Growth kinetics of intermetallic phases in the Cu-Sn binary and the Cu-Ni-Sn ternary systems at low temperatures. Doctoral Dissertation, Lehigh UniversityGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tu KN (1973) Interdiffusion and reaction in bimetallic Cu-Sn thin films. Acta Metall 21:347Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tu KN, Thompson R (1982) Kinetics of interfacial reaction in bimetallic Cu---Sn thin films. Acta Metall 30:947Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tu KN (1996) Cu/Sn interdiffusion reactions: thin film case vs bulk case. Mater Chem Phys 46:217Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Revay L (1977) Interdiffusion and formation of intermetallic compounds in tin-copper alloy surface coatings. Surf Technol 5:57Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Paul A (2004) The kirkendall effect in solid state diffusion. Doctoral Dissertation, Technical University of EindhovenGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Laurila T, Molarius J (2003) Reactive phase formation in thin film metal/metal and metal/silicon diffusion couples. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 28:185–230Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vuorinen V, Laurila T, Mattila T, Heikinheimo E, Kivilahti JK (2007) Solid state reactions between Cu(Ni) alloys and Sn. J Electron Mater 36(10):1355–1362Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vuorinen V, Yu H, Laurila T, Kivilahti JK (2008) Formation of the intermetallic compound between liquid Sn and different CuNix metallizations. J Electron Mater 37(6):792–805Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yu H, Vuorinen V, Kivilahti JK (2007) Effect of Ni on the formation of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallics. IEEE Trans Electron Packaging Manuf 30(4):293–298Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Oberndorff P (2001) Lead-Free solder systems: Phase relations and microstructures. Doctoral Dissertation, Technical University of EindhovenGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lin C-H, Chen S-W, Wang C-H (2002) Phase equilibria and solidification properties of Sn-Cu-Ni alloys. J Electron Mater 31(9):907Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schmetterer C, Flandorfer H, Luef Ch, Kodentsov A, Ipser H (2009) Cu-Ni-Sn: A key system for lead-free soldering. J Electron Mater 38(1):10Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vuorinen V (2006) Interfacial reactions between Sn-based solders and common metallizations used in electronics. Doctoral Dissertation, Helsinki University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. T. Mattila
    • 1
  • T. Laurila
    • 1
  • V. Vuorinen
    • 1
  • J. K. Kivilahti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics, School of Electrical EngineeringAalto UniversityAaltoFinland

Personalised recommendations