Cyclic load generally leads to mechanical failure of a material. In cyclic load, the load applied to a specimen varies in time and magnitude. This variation of load and time can be regular or stochastic. The effect of purely stochastic variations cannot be predicted; thus, the analysis of a cyclic load is done by simplifications trying to find a regular pattern in the load/time history. For the degradation behaviour, it makes a difference whether a specimen is subject to a slow variation of the load or to a rapid one. The two load regimes are assigned as low-cycle fatigue and high-cycle fatigue, respectively. In low-cycle fatigue, the time in each cycle allows the material to deform plastically, usually by creep. This means in low-cycle fatigue, the failure is triggered by deformation. High-cycle fatigue on the other hand does not leave enough time for relaxation. Local defects lead to local stress concentration above the yield strength, which causes the defect to grow with each cycle. In other words, high-cycle fatigue is stress driven. Usually, in high-cycle fatigue, the number of cycles to failure is above 105 cycles. In reality, it is quite common that both kinds of fatigue are present, which makes testing for cyclic load quite complex.


Solder Joint Cyclic Load Creep Rate Stress Amplitude Failure Strain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Norton FH (1929) The creep of steels at high temperatures. Mc. Graw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garofalo F (1963) Trans Metall Soc AIME 227Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hart EW (1967) Acta Metall 15:1545 ffGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grossmann G, Weber L (1999) The deformation behaviour of Sn62Pb36Ag2 and its implications on the design of thermal cycling tests. IEEE Trans Electron Packag Manufact 22:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bargel HJ, Schulze G (2004) Werkstoffkunde, 8th edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Callister WD Jr (2003) Materials science and engineering. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    University of Cambridge, http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/BD6/results.php. Accessed June 2009
  8. 8.
    Lambrinou K et al (2009) A novel mechanism of embrittlement affecting the impact reliability of tin-based lead-free solder joints. J Electron Mater. doi: 10.1007/s11664-009-0841-0
  9. 9.
    Marjamäki P, Mattila TT, Kivilahti JK (2006) A comparative study of the failure mechanisms encountered in drop and large amplitude vibration tests. In: Proceedings 56th electronic component and technology conference, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, pp 95–101Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vandevelde B et al FP5-CSG-IMECAT: highlights of a EC funded project on lead-free materials and assembly development technology, IPC BarcelonaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EMPADübendorfSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations