• Darren P. Broom
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


A major technological barrier currently preventing the proposed transition to a “hydrogen economy” is the storage of hydrogen for use as an energy carrier. There are various methods available, but none of these can currently achieve the required storage densities. The use of a reversible solid state hydrogen storage material, however, is one of the most promising potential solutions to this problem. In this opening chapter, we will look at some of the background to this topic, including the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, the barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen energy in transportation technology, the different methods that can be used for the storage of hydrogen and the use of solid state media. We will then introduce the measurement methods for hydrogen uptake determination and some of the complementary characterisation techniques that can be used. We also discuss the reasons why the accurate characterisation of the storage properties of a material is an important and high profile topic. We will close the chapter by defining some of the terminology used throughout the book.


Fuel Cell Hydrogen Storage Microporous Material Hydrogen Storage Material Hydrogen Sorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    United States Department of Energy (2005) FreedomCAR and fuel partnership: hydrogen storage technologies roadmap. United States Department of Energy, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sperling D, Cannon JS (eds) (2004) The hydrogen energy transition: moving toward the post petroleum age in transportation. Elsevier Academic Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rose R (2003) Fuel cells and hydrogen: the path forward. Breakthrough Technologies Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Perry ML, Fuller TF (2002) A historical perspective of fuel cell technology in the 20th century. J Electrochem Soc 149(7):S59–S67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    von Helmolt R, Eberle U (2007) Fuel cell vehicles: status 2007. J Power Sources 165:833–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dunn S (2002) Hydrogen futures: toward a sustainable energy system. Int J Hydrogen Energy 27:235–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Solomon BD, Banerjee A (2006) A global survey of hydrogen energy research, development and policy. Energy Policy 34:781–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohta T, Van Vorst WD, Winter C-J (2008) IAHE establishes hydrogen energy trust to assist implementation. Int J Hydrogen Energy 33(18):4713–4714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breakthrough Technologies Institute (2003) Fuel cell vehicle world survey 2003. Breakthrough Technologies Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (2009) Hydrogen research for transportation: the USCAR perspective. United States Council for Automotive Research, SouthfieldGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elam CC, Gregoire Padró CE, Sandrock G, Luzzi A, Lindblad P, Fjermestad Hagen E (2003) Realizing the hydrogen future: the International Energy Agency’s efforts to advance hydrogen energy technologies. Int J Hydrogen Energy 28:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shinnar R (2003) The hydrogen economy, fuel cells, and electric cars. Technol Soc 25:455–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kreith F, West R (2004) Fallacies of a hydrogen economy: a critical analysis of hydrogen production and utilization. J Energy Resour Technol 126:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Robertson BI, Beard LK (2004) Lessons learned in the deployment of alternative fueled vehicles. In: Sperling D, Cannon JS (eds) The hydrogen energy transition: moving toward the post petroleum age in transportation. Elsevier Academic Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering (2004) The hydrogen economy: opportunities, costs, barriers and R&D needs. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chalk S, Inouye L (2004) The President’s U.S. hydrogen initiative. In: Sperling D, Cannon JS (eds) The hydrogen energy transition: moving toward the post petroleum age in transportation. Elsevier Academic Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McDowall W, Eames M (2006) Forecasts, scenarios, visions, backcasts and roadmaps to the hydrogen economy: a review of the hydrogen futures literature. Energy Policy 34:1236–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    von Dokkum J, Dasinger A (2008) Meeting the challenges in the transport sector. J Power Sources 181:378–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Borup R, Meyers J, Pivovar B, Kim YS, Mukundan R, Garland N, Myers D, Wilson M, Garzon F, Wood D, Zelenay P, More K, Stroh K, Zawodzinski T, Boncella J, McGrath JE, Inaba M, Miyatake K, Hori M, Ota K, Ogumi Z, Miyata S, Nishikata A, Siroma Z, Uchimoto Y, Yasuda K, Kimijima K, Iwashita N (2007) Scientific aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cell durability and degradation. Chem Rev 107:3904–3951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Züttel A (2003) Materials for hydrogen storage. Mater Today 6(9):24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eberle U, Felderhoff M, Schüth F (2009) Chemical and physical solutions for hydrogen storage. Angew Chem Int Ed 48:6608–6630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sherif SA, Zeytinoglu N, Veziroğlu TN (1997) Liquid hydrogen: potential, problems, and a proposed research program. Int J Hydrogen Energy 22(7):683–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    de Wit MP, Faaij APC (2007) Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: a techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment. Int J Hydrogen Energy 32:4859–4870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gray EM (2007) Hydrogen storage—status and prospects. Adv Appl Ceram 106(1–2):25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Biniwale RB, Rayalu S, Devotta S, Ichikawa M (2008) Chemical hydrides: a solution to high capacity hydrogen storage and supply. Int J Hydrogen Energy 33:360–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang P, Kang XD (2008) Hydrogen-rich boron-containing materials for hydrogen storage. Dalton Trans 5400–5413Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crabtree RH (2008) Hydrogen storage in liquid organic heterocycles. Energy Environ Sci 1:134–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Walker G (ed) (2008) Solid-state hydrogen storage: materials and chemistry. Woodhead Publishing, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thomas KM (2007) Hydrogen adsorption and storage on porous materials. Catal Today 120:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sandrock G (1999) A panoramic overview of hydrogen storage alloys from a gas reaction point of view. J Alloy Compd 293–295:877–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Orimo S, Nakamori Y, Eliseo JR, Züttel A, Jensen CM (2007) Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. Chem Rev 107:4111–4132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carpetis C, Peschka W (1980) A study on hydrogen storage by use of cryoadsorbents. Int J Hydrogen Energy 5:539–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Agarwal RK, Noh JS, Schwarz JA, Davini P (1987) Effect of surface acidity of activated carbon on hydrogen storage. Carbon 25(2):219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chahine R, Bose TK (1994) Low-pressure adsorption storage of hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energy 19(2):161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dillon AC, Jones KM, Bekkedahl TA, Kiang CH, Bethune DS, Heben MJ (1997) Storage of hydrogen in single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nature 386:377–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chambers A, Park C, Baker RTK, Rodriguez NM (1998) Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers. J Phys Chem B 102(22):4253–4256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Becher M, Haluska M, Hirscher M, Quintel A, Skakalova V, Dettlaff-Weglikovska U, Chen X, Hulman M, Choi Y, Roth S, Meregalli V, Parrinello M, Ströbel R, Jörissen L, Kappes MM, Fink J, Züttel A, Stepanek I, Bernier P (2003) Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes. C R Phys 4:1055–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sing KSW, Everett DH, Haul RAW, Moscou L, Pierotti RA, Rouquérol J, Siemieniewska T (1985) Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity. Pure Appl Chem 57(4):603–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    International Organisation for Standardisation (1993) International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology. ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (2008) International vocabulary of metrology—basic and general concepts and terms (VIM). JCGM 200:2008Google Scholar

Copyright information

©  Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hiden Isochema LtdWarringtonUK

Personalised recommendations