A Practical Introduction to Meta-analysis

  • Sukhmeet S. Panesar
  • Srdjan Saso
  • Thanos Athanasiou


In this chapter, we describe how to perform meta-analysis of continuous and dichotomous, stratified and non-stratified data. We also demonstrate how to generate some of the commonly used graphical methods for displaying the results of meta-analysis.

Whilst the Review Manager Software package is an intuitive and easily accessible method for performing meta-analysis, care must be taken to perform a robust review of the literature and adequately explore heterogeneity in order to obtain more reliable results.


Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Review Manager Forest Plot Funnel Plot Conventional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting 
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Suggested Reading

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  1. 1.
    Cochrane Review Manager. Available online at
  2. 2.
    Panesar SS, Athanasiou T, Nair S, et al. Early outcomes in the elderly: a meta-analysis of 4921 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting-comparison between off-pump and on-pump techniques. Heart. 2006;92(12):1808-1816.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukhmeet S. Panesar
    • 1
  • Srdjan Saso
  • Thanos Athanasiou
  1. 1.National Patient Safety AgencyLondonUK

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