# Software Reliability Growth Models

Chapter

First Online:

## Abstract

Studies in software reliability modeling started as early as early 1960s. The issues related software quality quantification and reliability measurement arose even during the time when the development of computing systems started. Since in the 1960s the cost of the computing systems were very high, use was limited to few organizations, hardware design, test and maintainability was immature, the concepts of software reliability were in infancy stage as much of the studies were concerned with the productivity and quality of the hardware systems.

## Keywords

Software Reliability Reliability Growth Failure Intensity Simple Fault Fault Removal
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

## Notes

## References

- 1.Haugk G et al (1964) System testing of the no. 1 electronic switching system. Bell Syst Tech J 9:2575–2592Google Scholar
- 2.Jelinski Z, Moranda P (1972) Software reliability research. In: Freiberger W (ed) Statistical computer performance evaluation. Academic Press, New York, pp 465–484Google Scholar
- 3.Moranda P (1975) Predictions of software reliability during debugging. In: Proceedings annual reliability and maintainability symposium, Washington, DC, pp 327–332Google Scholar
- 4.Goel AL, Okumoto K (1979) Time dependent error detection rate model for software reliability and other performance measures. IEEE Trans Reliab R-28(3):206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Littlewood B, Verrall JL (1973) A Bayesian reliability growth model for computer software. Appl Stat 22:332–346MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Musa JD (1975) A theory of software reliability and its application. IEEE Trans Softw Eng SE-1:312–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Schneidewind NF (1972) An approach to software in reliability prediction and quality control. In: Fall joint computer conference, AFIPS conference proceedings. AFIPS Press, Montvale, pp 837–847Google Scholar
- 8.Schneidewind NF (1975) Analysis of error processes in computer software. Sigplan Not 10:337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Shooman M (1972) Probabilistic models for software reliability prediction. In: Freidberger W (ed) Statistical computer performance evaluation. Academic Press, New York, pp 485–502Google Scholar
- 10.Schick GL, Wolverton RW (1973) Assessment of software reliability. Proceedings operations research. Physica-Verlag, Wurzburg Wein, pp 395–422Google Scholar
- 11.Musa JD, Okumoto K (1984) A logarithmic Poisson execution time model for software reliability measurement. In: Proceedings 7th international conference on software engineering, Orlando, pp 230–237Google Scholar
- 12.Trachtenberg M (1990) A general theory of software reliability modeling. IEEE Trans Reliab 39(1):92–96MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Yamada S, Ohba M, Osaki S (1983) S-shaped software reliability growth modeling for software error detection. IEEE Trans Reliab R-32(5):475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Ohba M (1984) Software reliability analysis models. IBM J Res Dev 28:428–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Yamada S, Osaki S (1985) Software reliability growth modeling: models and applications. IEEE Trans Softw Eng 11:1431–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Bittanti S, Bolzern P, Pedrotti E, Pozzi N, Scattolini R (1988) A flexible modeling approach for software reliability growth. In: Goos G, Harmanis J (eds) Software reliability modelling and identification. Springer, Berlin, pp 101–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Kapur PK, Garg RB (1992) A software reliability growth model for an error removal phenomenon. Softw Eng J 7:291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Putnam LH (1978) A general empirical solution to the macro software sizing and estimating problem. IEEE Trans Softw Eng 4:345–367MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Yamada S, Ohtera H, Narihisa H (1986) Software reliability growth models with testing-effort. IEEE Trans Reliab R-35:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Yamada S, Hishitani J, Osaki S (1991) Test-effort dependent software reliability measurement. Int J Syst Sci 22(1):73–83MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Yamada S, Hishitani J, Osaki S (1993) Software reliability growth model with Weibull testing effort: a model and application. IEEE Trans Reliab 42:100–105MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Bokhari MU, Ahmad N (2006) Analysis of software reliability growth models: the case of log-logistic test-effort function. In: Proceedings 7th IASTED international conference on modeling and simulation, Montreal, QC, Canada, pp 540–545Google Scholar
- 23.Kapur PK, Goswami DN, Gupta A (2004) A software reliability growth model with testing effort dependent learning function for distributed systems. Int J Reliab Qual Safety Eng 11(4):365–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Kuo SY, Huang CY, Lyu MR (2001) Framework for modeling software reliability, using various testing-efforts and fault-detection rates. IEEE Trans Reliab 50(3):310–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Huang CY (2005) Performance analysis of software reliability growth models with testing-effort and change-point. J Syst Softw 76:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Huang CY, Lo JH, Kuo SY, Lyu MR (2002) Optimal allocation of testing resources for modular software systems. In: Proceedings 13th IEEE international symposium on software reliability engineering (ISSRE 2002), November 2002, Annapolis, MD, pp 129–138Google Scholar
- 27.Huang CY, Kuo SY, Lyu MR (2007) An assessment of testing-effort dependent software reliability growth models. IEEE Trans Reliab 56(2):198–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Downs T (1985) An approach to the modeling of software testing with some applications. IEEE Trans Softw Eng 11(4):375–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Trachtenberg M (1985) The linear software reliability model and uniform testing. IEEE Trans Reliab R34(1):8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Dale CJ (1982) Software reliability evaluation methods. Technical Report ST-26750, British Aerospace Dynamics GroupGoogle Scholar
- 31.Ramamoorthy CV, Bastani FB (1982) Software reliability status and perspectives. IEEE Trans Reliab 37(1):88–91Google Scholar
- 32.Musa JD, Iannino A, Okumoto K (1987) Software reliability: measurement, prediction, application. McGraw-Hill, New York ISBN 0–07-044093-XGoogle Scholar
- 33.Ohba M (1984) Inflection S-shaped software reliability growth models. In: Osaki S, Hatoyama Y (eds) Stochastic models in reliability theory. Springer, Berlin, pp 44–162Google Scholar
- 34.Kareer N, Kapur PK, Grover PS (1990) An S-shaped software reliability growth model with two types of errors. Microelectron Reliab 30(6):1085–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Kapur PK, Younes S, Agarwala S (1995) Generalized Erlang software reliability growth model. ASOR Bull 35(2):273–278Google Scholar
- 36.Kapur PK, Bardhan AK, Kumar S (2000) On categorization of errors in a software. Int J Manag Syst 16(1):37–48Google Scholar
- 37.Kapur PK, Bardhan AK, Shatnawi O (2002) Why software reliability growth modeling should define errors of different severity. J Indian Stat Assoc 40(2):119–142MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- 38.Shatnawi O, Kapur PK (2008) A generalized software fault classification. WSEAS Trans Comput 7(9):1375–1384Google Scholar
- 39.Kapur PK, Kumar A, Yadav K, Kumar J (2007) Software reliability growth modeling for errors of different severity using change point. Int J Reliab Qual Safety Eng 14(4):311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Kapur PK, Singh VB, Yang BO (2007) Software reliability growth model for determining fault types. In: Misra RB, Naikan VNA, Chaturvedi SK, Goyal NK (eds) Proceedings 3rd international conference on reliability and safety engineering, INCREASE 2007, Udaipur, pp 334–349Google Scholar
- 41.Kapur PK, Singh VB, BasirZadeh M (2008) Considering errors of different severity in software reliability growth modeling using fault dependency and debugging time lag functions. In: Verma AK, Kapur PK, Ghadge SG (eds) Advances in performance and safety of complex systems. MacMillan India Ltd, Bangalore, pp 839–849Google Scholar
- 42.Kapur PK, Gupta A, Jha PC (2007) Reliability analysis of project and product type software in operational phase incorporating the effect of fault removal efficiency. Int J Reliab Qual Safety Eng 14(3):219–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Kenny GQ (1993) Estimating defects in a commercial software during operational use. IEEE Trans Reliab 42(1):107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Kapur PK, Bardhan AK, Jha PC (2003) Optimal reliability allocation problem for a modular software system. OPSEARCH J Oper Res Soc India 40(2):133–148MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- 45.Bass FM (1969) A new product growth model for consumer durables. Manag Sci 15:215–227MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Xie M, Zao M (1992) The Schneidewind software reliability model revisited. In: Proceedings 3rd international symposium on software reliability engineering, pp 184–192Google Scholar
- 47.Kapur PK, Younes S (1995) Software reliability growth model with error dependency. Microelectron Reliab 35(2):273–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 48.Huang CY, Lin CT (2006) Software reliability analysis by considering fault dependency and debugging time lag. IEEE Trans Reliab 35(3):436–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 49.Lo HJ, Huang CY (2004) Incorporating imperfect debugging into software fault processes. In: TENCON 2004. 2004 IEEE region 10 conference, vol 2, 21–24 November 2004, pp 326–329Google Scholar
- 50.Singh VB, Yadav K, Kapur R, Yadavalli VSS (2007) Considering fault dependency concept with debugging time lag in software reliability growth modeling using a power function of testing time. Int J Autom Comput 4(4):359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 51.Huang CY (2005) Cost reliability optimal release policy for software reliability models incorporating improvements in testing efficiency. J Syst Softw 77:139–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 52.Kapur PK, Kumar A, Yadavalli VSS (2006) A general software reliability growth models for a distributed environment. S Afr Stat J 40:151–185MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- 53.Chu-Ti Lin, Chin-Yu Huang, Jun-Ru Chang (2005) Integrating generalized weibull-type testing-effort function and multiple change-points into software reliability growth models. APSEC, pp 431–438Google Scholar
- 54.Gupta A, Kapur R, Jha PC (2008) Considering testing efficiency in estimating software reliability based on testing variation dependent SRGM. Int J Reliab Qual Safety Eng 15(2):77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 55.Norden PV (1977) Project life cycle modeling: background and application of the life cycle curves. Presented at the software life cycle management workshop, Airlie, VA sponsored by US Army Computer Systems CommandGoogle Scholar
- 56.Kapur PK, Gupta A, Shatnawi O, Yadavalli VSS (2006) Testing effort control using flexible software reliability growth model with change point. Int J Performability Eng—Special issue on Dependability of Software/Computing Systems 2:245–262Google Scholar
- 57.Parr FN (1980) An alternative to the Rayleigh curve for software development effort. IEEE Trans Softw Eng SE-6:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 58.Huang CY, Kuo SY, Chen IY (1997) Analysis of a software reliability growth model with logistic testing effort function. In: Proceedings 8th international symposium software reliability engineering (ISSRE’97), pp 378–388Google Scholar
- 59.Huang CY, Lo JH, Kuo SY, Lyu MR (1999) Software reliability modeling and cost estimation incorporating testing-effort and efficiency. In: Proceedings 10th international symposium software reliability engineering (ISSRE’1999), pp 62–72Google Scholar
- 60.Mudholkar GS, Srivastava DK (1993) Exponentiated Weibull family analyzing bathtub failure-rate data. IEEE Trans Reliab 42:299–302MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 61.Yamada S, Tamura Y, Kimura M (2000) A software reliability growth model for a distributed development environment. Electron Commun Japan 83(3):1446–1453Google Scholar
- 62.Kapur PK, Gupta A, Kumar A, Yamada S (2005) Flexible software reliability growth models for distributed systems. OPSEARCH J Oper Res Soc India 42(4):378–398MATHGoogle Scholar
- 63.Kapur PK, Gupta A, Gupta A, Kumar A (2005) Discrete software reliability growth modeling. In: Kapur PK, Verma AK (eds) Quality, reliability and IT (trends and future directions). Narora Publications Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, pp 158–166Google Scholar
- 64.Yadav K, Goswami DN, Kapur PK (2007) Testing-domain based software reliability growth models for distributed environment. In: Proceedings 3rd international conference on reliability and safety engineering (INCRESE-2007), Udaipur, pp 614–628Google Scholar
- 65.Kapur PK, Garg RB, Kumar S (1999) Contributions to hardware and software reliability. World Scientific, SingaporeMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 66.Pham H (2006) System software reliability. Reliability engineering series. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 67.Misra PN (1983) Software reliability analysis. IBM Syst J 22:262–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar

## Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011