Syncope pp 37-45 | Cite as

Syncope Burden: Economic Impact of Syncope on Health-Care Resources and Personal Well-Being



Transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) accounts for approximately 1% of emergency department (ED) visits based on data derived from various studies in Italy, France, and the USA.1, 2 In the USA, this percentage translated into >1,127 million visits in 2006 based on “primary diagnoses” of “syncope and collapse” recorded in the 2006 National Hospital Ambulatory Care survey, and >411,000 hospital admissions when these diagnoses were listed among discharge diagnoses. Furthermore, recent US estimates indicate that T-LOC accounts annually for >16 million physician office visits, ED visits, and outpatient clinic visits.


Emergency Department Visit Motor Vehicle Accident Outpatient Clinic Visit Physician Office Visit Somatization Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Moya A, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope (version 2009). The task force for the diagnosis and management of syncope of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2009;30:2631–2671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brignole M, et al. Guidelines on management (diagnosis and treatment) of syncope – update 2004. Europace. 2004;6:467–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sun BC, et al. Characteristics and admission patterns of patients presenting with syncope to US emergency departments, 1992–2000. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:1029–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sun BC, et al. Direct medical costs of syncope=related hospitalizations in the United States. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:668–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kapoor WN, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic implications of recurrences in patients with syncope. Am J Med. 1987;83:700–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shiyovich A, et al. Admission for syncope: Evaluation, cost and prognosis according to etiology. Israel Med Assoc J. 2008;10:104–108.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shen WK, et al. Syncope Evaluation in the Emergency Department Study (SEEDS): a multidisciplinary approach to syncope management. Circulation. 2004;110: 3636–3645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malasana G, Brignole M, Daccaret M, Sherwood R, Hamdan M. The magnitude of the Faint and Fall Problem in the general population of Utah: A first step towards the creation of a cost-effective diagnostic approach. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010. Nov 22. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2010.02968.x. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kenny RA, et al. Impact of a dedicated syncope and falls facility for older adults on emergency beds. Age Ageing. 2002;31:272–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brignole M, et al. Evaluation of Guidelines in Syncope Study 2 ( EGSYS-2) GROUP. Standardized-care pathway vs. usual management of syncope patients presenting as emergencies at general hospitals. Europace. 2006;8:644–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baron-Esquivas G, et al. Cost of diagnosis and treatment of syncope in patients admitted to a cardiology unit. Europace. 2006;8:122–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Farwell DJ, Sulke AN. Does the use of a syncope diagnostic protocol improve the investigation and management of syncope? Heart. 2004;90:52–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Del Greco M, et al. Diagnostic pathway of syncope and analysis of the impact of guidelines in a district general hospital. The ECSIT study (epidemiology and costs of syncope in Trento). Ital Heart J. 2003;4:99–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brignole M, et al. Management of syncope referred urgently to general hospitals with and without syncope units. Europace. 2003;5:293–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ammirati F, et al. Management of syncope: clinical and economic impact of a syncope unit. Europace. 2008;10:471–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Santhouse J, et al. A comparison of self-reported quality of life between patients with epilepsy and neurocardiogenic syncope. Epilepsia. 2007;48:1019–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rose MS, et al. The relationship between health-related quality of life and frequency of spells in patients with syncope. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000;53:1209–1216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Linzer M, et al. Impairment of physical and psychological function in recurrent syncope. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44:1037–1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Linzer M, et al. Recurrent syncope as a chronic disease. J Gen Intern Med. 1994;9:181–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giada F, et al. Psychiatric profile, quality of life and risk of syncopal recurrence in patients with tilt-induced vasovagal syncope. Europace. 2005;7:465–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Dijk N, et al. Clinical factors associated with quality of life in patients with transient loss of consciousness. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006;17:998–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    van Dijk N, et al. Quality of life within one year following presentation after transient loss of consciousness. Am J Cardiol. 2007;100:672–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baron-Esquivas G, et al. Short-term evolution of vasovagal syncope: Influence on the quality of life. Int J Cardiol. 2005;102:315–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mendu ML, et al. Yield of diagnostic tests in evaluating syncopal episodes in older patients. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:1299–1305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Cardiologia, Centro AritmologicoOspedali del TigullioLavagnaItaly
  2. 2.Cardiac Arrhythmia CenterMedical School, University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations