As has been already introduced in Chapter 1, syncope is caused by a self-limited, relatively brief period of inadequate delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients to brain tissues.1, 2 Since neuronal tissue has very limited energy storage capability, a well-maintained flow of oxygenated blood to the brain is crucial.
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Moya A, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope (version 2009). The task force for the diagnosis and management of syncope of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2009;30:2631–2671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brignole M, et al. Guidelines on management (diagnosis and treatment) of syncope – update 2004. Europace. 2004;6:467–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rowell LB. Human circulation. Regulation during physical stress. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1986.Google Scholar
Vernino S, Lennon VA. Neuronal ganglionic acetylcholine receptor autoimmunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;998:211–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernino S, et al. Autoantibodies to ganglionic acetylcholine receptors in autoimmune autonomic neuropathies. New Engl J Med. 200;343:847–855.Google Scholar
Camdessanche JP, et al. Paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy associated with anti-Hu antibodies. A clinical and electrophysiological study of 20 patients. Brain. 2002;125:166–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Dijk JG, et al. A guide to disorders causing transient loss of consciousness: focus on syncope. Nature Rev Neurosci. 2009;5:438–448.Google Scholar
Verheyden B, et al. Steep fall in cardiac output is main determinant of hypotension during drug-free and nitroglycerine-induced orthostatic vasovagal syncope. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5:1695–1701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wieling W, Schatz IJ. The consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension: a revisit after 13 years. J Hyperten. 2009;27:935–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ducros A, et al. The clinical and radiological spectrum of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A prospective series of 67 patients. Brain. 2007;130:3091–3101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silvani S, et al. Cerebral vasoconstriction in neurally mediated syncope: relationship with type of head-up tilt test response. Ital Heart J. 2003;4:768–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Grubb BP, et al. Cerebral syncope: loss of consciousness associated with cerebral vasoconstriction in the absence of systemic hypotension. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998;21: 652–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leitch JW. Syncope associated with supraventricular tachycardia: An expression of tachycardia or vasomotor response. Circulation. 1992;85:1064–1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giese AE, et al. Impact of age and blood pressure on the lower arterial pressure limit for maintenance of consciousness during passive upright posture in healthy vasovagal fainters: preliminary observations. Europace. 2004;6:457–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gisolf J, et al. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure. J Physiol. 2004;560:317–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar