Syncope pp 253-265 | Cite as

How to: Role of Questionnaires and Risk Stratification at the Initial Evaluation in the Clinic and in the Emergency Department



Syncope is a symptom in which transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) occurs as a consequence of a self-limited, relatively brief, and spontaneously self-terminating period of inadequate cerebral nutrient delivery.1 The possible causes of syncope are numerous, but a transient fall of systemic arterial pressure to a level below the minimum needed to sustain cerebral blood flow (i.e., the lower end of the cerebrovascular “autoregulatory” range) is by far the most common. Other causes, such as acute hypoxemia, are possible, but rare.


Structural Heart Disease Retrograde Amnesia Right Bundle Branch Block Right Bundle Branch Block Recurrent Syncope 
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This chapter was prepared with the help of Ali Abdul Jabbar, MD, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Internal Medicine Department, Las Vegas, USA.


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© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Cardiologia, Centro AritmologicoOspedali del TigullioLavagnaItaly
  2. 2.Cardiac Arrhythmia CenterMedical School, University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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