Syncope pp 139-150 | Cite as

Syncope (T-LOC) Management Units: The Italian Model

  • Michele Brignole
  • David G. Benditt


Various models of care have been developed in order to improve the management of transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC)/syncope (see Chapter 9). Guidelines have also been assessed in several studies. Most of these care models were restricted to patients referred urgently for syncope to the emergency department. In general, a considerable improvement in diagnostic yield and cost effectiveness (i.e., cost per reliable diagnosis) was achieved in comparison to conventional practice. Nevertheless, these models have not been widely adopted and their implementation in clinical practice and effectiveness are largely unknown.


Structural Heart Disease Cardiology Department Unexplained Syncope Carotid Sinus Massage Implantable Loop Recorder 
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  1. 1.
    Brignole M, et al. Guidelines on management (diagnosis and treatment) of syncope – Update 2004. Europace. 2004;6:467–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gruppo Italiano Multidisciplinare per lo Studio della Sincope (GIMSI)/Area Syncope Unit/ Syncope Unit certificate GIMSI.
  3. 3.
    Brignole M, et al. Prospective multicentre systematic guideline-based management of patients referred to the syncope units of general hospitals. Europace. 2010;12:109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Cardiologia, Centro AritmologicoOspedali del TigullioLavagnaItaly
  2. 2.Cardiac Arrhythmia CenterMedical School, University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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