Transmission Expansion Planning: A Methodology to Include Security Criteria and Uncertainties Using Optimization Techniques
Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is a complex optimization task to ensure that the power system will meet the forecasted demand and the security criteria along the planning horizon, while minimizing investment, operational, and interruption costs. Optimization techniques based on metaheuristics have demonstrated the potential to find high-quality solutions. Numerous advantages can be linked to these tools: the software complexity is acceptable; they are able to mix integer and non-integer variables; and also present relatively faster computational times. Their success is related to the ability to avoid local optima by exploring the basic structure of each problem. However, owing to today’s power network dimensions, random behavior of transmission and generation equipments, load growth uncertainties, etc., the TEP problem has become combinatorial, stochastic, and highly complex. When uncertainties and chronological aspects are added to these problems, the optimal solution becomes almost inaccessible, even when using metaheuristics. This chapter proposes a methodology to solve the multi-stage TEP problem considering security criteria and the treatment of external uncertainties, as load/generation growth. In addition, a discussion about how to include security criteria using deterministic and probabilistic approaches is presented through a case study on a small test system. A real transmission network is used as an illustration of the application of the proposed methodology.
KeywordsParticle Swarm Optimization Reliability Index Planning Horizon Greedy Randomize Adaptive Search Procedure Artificial Immune System
The authors would like to thank Dr. Cleber E. Sacramento from CEMIG (Compania Energética de Minas Gerais), Brazil, for providing data and discussions on planning strategies. The authors would like to extend their thanks to Mr. Larry Lee and Dr. Gomaa Hamoud from Hydro One, Canada, to Dr. George Anders from Kinectrics, Canada, to Prof. Leonardo M. Honório from UNIFEI, Brazil, and also to Prof. Leonidas Chaves de Resende from UFSJ, Brazil, for discussions on transmission expansion planning and optimization issues.
- 7.Leite da Silva AM, Manso LAF, Resende LC, Rezende LS (2008) Tabu search applied to transmission expansion planning considering losses and interruption costs. In: Proceedings of 10th PMAPS, Puerto RicoGoogle Scholar
- 12.Leite da Silva AM, Sales WS, Resende LC, Manso LAF, Sacramento CE, Rezende LS (2006) Evolution strategies to transmission expansion planning considering unreliability costs. In: Proceedings of 9th PMAPS, StockholmGoogle Scholar
- 13.Dong ZY, Lu M, Lu Z, Wong KP (2006) A differential evolution based method for power system planning. In: IEEE congress on evolutionary computation 2699-2706, VancouverGoogle Scholar
- 15.Leite da Silva AM, Sacramento CE, Manso LAF, Rezende LS, Resende LC, Sales WS (2008) Metaheuristic-based optimization methods for transmission expansion planning considering unreliability costs. In: Castronuovo ED (ed) Optimization advances in electric power systems, 1st edn. Nova Publishers, USAGoogle Scholar
- 16.Rezende LS, Leite da Silva AM, Honorio LM (2009) Artificial immune system applied to the multi-stage transmission expansion planning. In: Proceedings of 8th ICARIS. LNCS (To be published)Google Scholar
- 17.Lee KY, El-Sharkawi MA (2008) Modern heuristic optimization techniques: theory and applications to power systems. IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering, WileyGoogle Scholar
- 22.CIGRE W G 37.10 (1993) Dealing with uncertainty in system planning—has flexibility proved to be an adequate answer? ELECTRA 151:53–65Google Scholar
- 23.CIGRE W G 37.10 (1995) Methods for planning under uncertainty—towards flexibility in power system development. ELECTRA 161:143–164Google Scholar
- 25.Garver LL (1970) Transmission network estimation using linear programming. IEEE Trans PAS 89:1688–1697Google Scholar
- 27.IEEE APM Subcommittee (1979) IEEE reliability test system. IEEE Trans PAS 99:2047–2054Google Scholar
- 28.Ward JB (1949) Equivalent circuits for power flow studies. AIEE Trans 98:498–508Google Scholar