• W. H. Tang
  • Q. H. Wu
Part of the Power Systems book series (POWSYS)


The electricity supply industry is usually divided into three functional sections, including generation, transmission and distribution. Power transformers, on-load tap changers, circuit breakers, current transformers, station batteries and switch gears are the main devices of a transmission and distribution infrastructure that act together to transfer power from power stations to homes and business customers. These devices are critical assets, and if they were to fail that could cause power outages, personal and environmental hazards and expensive rerouting or purchase of power from other power suppliers. Therefore, these critical assets should be monitored closely and continuously in order to assess their operating conditions and ensure their maximum uptime. Particularly, large oil-immersed power transformers are among the most expensive assets in power transmission and distribution networks. It can raise or lower the voltage or current in an AC circuit, isolate circuits from each other and increase or decrease the apparent value of a capacitor, an inductor or a resistor. Consequently, power transformers enable us to transmit electrical energy over great distance and to distribute it safely to factories and homes. A transformer can fail due to any combination of electrical, mechanical or thermal stresses. Such failures are sometimes catastrophic and almost always include irreversible internal damage. Part of failures may lead to high cost for replacement or repair and an unplanned outage of a power transformer is highly uneconomical. As a result, as major equipment in power systems, its correct functioning is vital to enable efficient and reliable operations of power systems.


Power Transformer Partial Discharge Frequency Response Analysis International Electrotechnical Commission National Electrical Manufacturer Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Provanzana JH, Gattens PR (1992) Transformer condition monitoring realizing an integrated adaptive analysis system. CIGRE 1992, Rep. No. 12-105Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leibfried T, Knorr W, Viereck K (1998) On-line monitoring of power transformers—trends, new development and first experiences. CIGRE 1998, Rep. No. 12-211Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kemp IJ (1995) Partial discharge plant monitoring technology: present and future developments. IEE Proc Sci Meas Technol 142(1):4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    James L, et al. (1995) Model-based monitoring of transformers. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for electromagnetic and electronic systemsGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heathcote MJ (1998) The J&P transformer book, 12th edn. First published by Johnson & Phillips Ltd, Newnes imprint, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ALSTOMT&D Control Ltd. (2001) Monitoring system MS 2000, ALSTOM product manualGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    International Electrotechnical Commission (1991) IEC60354: Loading guide for oil immersed power transformers. International Electrotechnical Commission Standard, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    International Electrotechnical Commission (1987) IEC60905: Loading guide for dry-type power transformers. International Electrotechnical Commission Standard, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Transformers Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society (1991) IEEE guide for loading mineral oil-immersed transformer. IEEE Std. C57.91-1995, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    American National Standards Institute (1981) Guide for loading oil-immersed distribution and power transformers. Appendix C57.92-1981, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    National Electrical Manufacturers Association (1978) Guide for loading oil-immersed power transformers with 65°C average winding rise. Standard publication No. TR 98-1978Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Radaković Z, Kalić DJ (1997) Results of a novel algorithm for the calculation of the characteristic temperatures in power oil transformers. Electr Eng 80:205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alegi GL, Black WZ (1990) Real-time thermal model for an oil-immersed, forced-air cooled transformer. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 5(2):991–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    International Electrotechnical Commission (1978) IEC60559: Interpretation of the analysis of gases in transformers and other oil-filled electrical equipment in service. International Electrotechnical Commission Standard, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (1994) Transformers Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society, IEEE guide for the interpretation of gases generated in oil immersed transformers, IEEE Std. C57.104-1991. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mollmann A, Pahlavanpour B (1999) New guidelines for interpretation of dissolved gas analysis in oil-filled transformers. Electra, CIGRE France 186:30–51Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bureau of Standards for the P.R.China (1987) GB7252-87: Guide for the analysis and diagnosis of gases dissolved in transformer oil. National Technical Committee 44 on Transformer of Standardization Administration of ChinaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu YL, Griffin PJ, Zhang Y, Ding X (1996) An artificial neural network approach to transformer fault diagnosis. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 11(4):1838–1841Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Griffin PJ, Wang ZY, Liu YL (1998) A combined ANN and expert system tool for transformer fault diagnosis. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 13(4):1224-1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin CE, Ling JM, Huang CL (1993) An expert system for transformer fault diagnosis and maintenance using dissolved gas analysis. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 8(1):231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Islam SM, Wu T, Ledwich G (2000) A novel fuzzy logic approach to transformer fault diagnosis. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 7(2):177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dick EP, Erven CC (1978) Transformer diagnostic testing by frequency response analysis. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst, PAS-97 (6):2144–2150Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bureau of Standards for the P.R.China (2004) Frequency response analysis on winding deformation of power transformers, DL/T 911-2004, The electric power industry standard of P.R.ChinaGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    CIGRE Working group A2.26 (2006) Mechanical condition assessment if transformer windings using frequency response analysis (FRA). ELECTRA, 228:30-34Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (2007) IEEE PC57.149/D4 Draft trial-use guide for the application and interpretation of frequency response analysis for oil immersed transformers, 2007 (Draft)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rahimpour E, et al. (2003) Transfer function method to diagnose axial displacement and radial deformation of transformer windings. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 18(2):493–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rahimpour J, et al. (2002) Transformer modeling for FRA techniques. In: Proceedings of the IEEE power engineering society transmission and distribution conference, vol 1, ASIA PACIFIC, pp 317–321Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rudenberg R (1968) Electrical shock waves in power systems: traveling waves in lumped and distributed circuit elements. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shibuya Y, Fujita S, Hosokawa N (1997) Analysis of very fast transient overvoltage in transformer winding. IEE Proc Generation Transm Distrib 144(5):461–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bjerkan E, Høidalen H (2007) High frequency FEM-based power transformer modeling: investigation of internal stresses due to network-initiated overvoltages. Electr Power Syst Res 77:1483–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang M, Vandermaar A, Srivastava KD (2005) Improved detection of power transformer winding movement by extending the FRA high frequency range. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 20(3):1930–1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jayasinghe JASB, Wang ZD, Jarman PN, Darwin AW (2006) Winding movement in power transformers: a comparison of FRA measurement connection methods. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 13(6):1342–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    International Electrotechnical Commission (2000) IEC60270: High-voltage test techniques—partial discharge measurements, International Electrotechnical Commission Standard, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ming L, Jonsson B, Bengtsson T, Leijon M (1995) Directivity of acoustic signals from partial discharges in oil. IEE Proc Sci Meas Technol 142(1):85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lazarevich AK (2003) Partial discharge detection and localization in high voltage transformers using an optical acoustic sensor. The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Ph.D. thesis, Blacksburg, Virginia, USAGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gulski E, Kreuger FH, Krivda A (1993) Classification of partial discharges. IEEE Trans Electr Insul 28(6):917–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gulski E (1995) Discharge pattern recognition in high voltage equipment. IEE Proc Sci Meas Technol 142(1):51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kreuger FH, Gulski E (1992) Computer-aided recognition of discharge sources. IEEE Trans Electr Insul 27(1):82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tsai SS (2002) Power Transformer partial discharge (PD) acoustic signal detection using fiber sensors and wavelet analysis, modeling, and simulation. The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, M.Sc. thesis, Blacksburg, Virginia, USAGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Farag AS, et al. (1999) On-line partial discharge calibration and monitoring for power transformers. Electr Power Syst Res 50:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zaman MR (1998) Experimental testing of the artificial neural network based protection of power transformers. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 13(2):510–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tomsovic K, Tapper M, Ingvarsson T (1993) A fuzzy approach to integrating different transformer diagnostic methods. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 8(3):1638–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited  2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and ElectronicsThe University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations