The primary requirement for all measurements related to the shadow of a gnomon or śaṅku 1 is a flat surface. The following quote from Laghu-vivṙti explains how carefully the plane surface needs to be prepared for positioning the śaṅku on this surface. It also furnishes certain other details that are to be considered, before making the necessary markings on the surface, for various measurements—related to place, time and direction (tripraśna)—that will be discussed later.


Daily Motion Spherical Triangle Intermediate Quantity Zenith Distance Vernal Equinox 
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© Hindustan Book Agency 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT BombayCell for Indian Science and Technology in SanskritPowaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Theoretical PhysicsUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

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