Propositional logic is the basis for any study of logic. The sentences of propositional logic are built from a set of unstructured atomic propositions that are combined using a number of logical connectives. Logical connectives are Boolean operators whose names come from natural language, such as “not”, “and”, “or” and “implies”, and they are given a formal meaning that mimics its usage in natural language.
This chapter is devoted to the study of classical propositional logic. The chapter starts with a presentation of both the syntax and the semantics of propositional logic. In other words, we describe both the set of sentences of the language of propositional logic, and characterise the meaning of those sentences (i.e. which sentences are valid or not). The notion of proof derivation is then introduced as a syntactic characterisation of logical inference, and the interplay between provability and validity is established. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the decision problem of checking whether a propositional formula is valid or not.
KeywordsInference Rule Propositional Logic Proof System Truth Table Atomic Proposition
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