Bubble Behavior Near a Two Fluid Interface
The influence of rigid and free boundaries on the dynamics of bubbles has been researched extensively, both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments by (Benjamin and Ellis 1966) showed that the presence of a solid boundary caused the formation of a liquid jet through the bubble, forming a toroidal bubble. This behavior has been observed in many other experiments since, including (Brujan et al. 2002), (Phillip and Lauterborn 1998), (Tomita and Shima 1986), (Lauterborn and Bolle 1975). Similar behavior is also observed when a bubble collapses near a free surface. In such conditions bubble jetting may be directed away from the surface, with a counter-jet forming out of the free surface. Experiments using spark-generated bubbles by (Blake and Gibson 1981) under free fall conditions and (Chahine and Bovis 1980) in standard gravity showed this counter-jet to be greatly influenced by the standoff distance. Bubbles formed very close to the surface generate severe vertical surface spikes, and those at greater distances create much smaller and smoother deformations to the surface.
KeywordsFree Surface Cavitation Bubble Standoff Distance Bubble Surface Fluid Interface
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