A Brief History of Immunologic Thinking: Is it Time for Yin and Yang?

  • B. D. Curti
  • D. L. Longo
Part of the Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering, & Technology book series (MSSET)


Our understanding of tumor biology and the immune system has expanded greatly in the last decade. This explosion of knowledge can be attributed to advances in molecular biology. Despite these advances, our success in devising effective therapy against cancer has been modest at best. Why hasn’t this new knowledge translated into more effective cancer treatment? This chapter discusses the limitations of applying traditional Aristotelian logic to complex biological systems. Alternative approaches for solving problems in immunology and cancer research, such as “fuzzy logic” are described.


Fuzzy Logic Core Promoter Complex Biological System Logical Argument Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. D. Curti
    • 1
  • D. L. Longo
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Research Branch, Division of Clinical SciencesNational Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research and Development CenterFrederickUSA
  2. 2.National Institutes of HealthNational Institute on AgingBaltimoreUSA

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