Some New Nonlinear and Symbol Manipulation Techniques to Mitigate Adverse Effects of High PAPR in OFDM Wireless Communications

Part of the Systems & Control: Foundations & Applications book series (SCFA)


Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation has several attributes which favor it for high speed wireless communications. But its high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) seriously limits the linear range, and hence the power efficiency, of the transmitter’s high power amplifier (HPA). We present an overview of two complementary approaches to the solution of this problem. Details are provided in our papers listed in the References. The first approach uses an adaptive nonlinear pre-distorter (PD) to compensate for the nonlinearity in the HPA. The analytical expressions used for the HPA and the corresponding PD lead to satisfactory overall system operation up to the saturation region of the HPA, under rapidly time-varying conditions. The second approach reduces the PAPR to an acceptable range by means of several recently proposed PAPR reduction techniques. These techniques include (1) an enhanced version (denoted EIF-PTS) of the Cimini/Sollenberger iterative flipping procedure for implementation of the Muller/Huber partial transmit sequence (PTS) algorithm; (2) a decision-oriented tree-structured modification (denoted T-PTS) of the PTS algorithm, which seeks the best complexity/performance trade-off in the implementation of the resulting simplified PTS algorithm; (3) a combination of clipping and selected mapping techniques for fading channels; and (4) an extension of some of the underlying PAPR reduction concepts to multiple input, multiple output OFDM-based wireless communication systems.


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex System Nonlinear Distortion Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Signal Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. [T99]
    Tellado, J.: Peak to average power reduction for multicarrier modulation, Ph.D dissertation, Stanford University, Palo Altc, CA (1999) Google Scholar
  2. [OL95]
    O’Neil, R., Lopes, L.N.: Envelope variations and spectral splatter in clipped multicarrier signals, in Proc. of PIMRC’95, 71–75, Sept (1995)Google Scholar
  3. [WT05]
    Wang, L., Tellambura, C.: A simplified clipping and filtering technique for PAR reduction in OFDM systems, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 12, no. 6, 453–456, June (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [Ld06]
    Lee, B.M., de Figueiredo, R.J.P.: Adaptive pre-distorters for linearization of high power amplifiers in OFDM wireless communications, Circuits, Systems & Signal Processing, Birkhäuser Boston, vol. 25, no. 1, 55–80, (2006)Google Scholar
  5. [Ld05]
    Lee, B.M., de Figueiredo, R.J.P.: A tunable pre-distorter for linearization of solid state power amplifier in mobile wireless OFDM, IEEE 7th Emerging Technologies Workshop, 84–87, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 23–24, (2005)Google Scholar
  6. [dL04]
    de Figueiredo, R.J.P., Lee, B.M.: A new pre-distortion approach to TWTA compensation for wireless OFDM systems, 2nd. IEEE International Conference on Circuits and Systems for Communications, ICCSC-2004 (Invited Plenary Lecture), Moscow, Russia, no. 130, June 30–July 2, (2004)Google Scholar
  7. [BC94]
    Brajal, A., Chouly, A.: Compensation of nonlinear distortions for orthogonal multicarrier schemes using predistortion, GLOBECOM 1994, San Francisco, CA, vol. 3, 1909–1914, Nov. (1994)Google Scholar
  8. [HH00]
    Han D., Hwang, T.: An adaptive pre-distorter for the compensation of HPA nonlinearity, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 46, 152–157, June (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [JCC97]
    Jeon, W.G., Chang, K.H., Cho, Y.S.: An adaptive data predistorter for compensation of nonlinear distortion in OFDM systems, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 45, no 10, 1167–1171, Oct. (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [KCY99]
    Kang, H.K., Cho, Y.S., Youn, D.H.: On compensation nonlinear distortions of an OFDM system using an efficient adaptive predistorter, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 47, no. 4, 522–526, April (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [CPC00]
    Chang, S., Powers, E.J., Chung, J.: A compensation scheme for nonlinear distortion in OFDM systems, Global Telecommunications Conference, IEEE GLOBECOM 2000, vol. 2, 736–740, Dec. (2000)Google Scholar
  12. [CP01]
    Chang, S., Powers, E.J.: A simplified predistorter for compensation of nonlinear distortion in OFDM systems, Global Telecommunications Conference, IEEE GLOBECOM 2001, vol. 5, 3080–3084, Nov. (2001)Google Scholar
  13. [GC02]
    Guo, Y., Cavallaro, J.R.: Enhanced power efficiency of mobile OFDM radio using predistortion and post-compensation, IEEE 56th Vehicular Technology Conference, Proceedings. VTC 2002-Fall. 2002, vol. 1, 214–218, Sept. (2002)Google Scholar
  14. [S81]
    Saleh, A.A.M.: Frequency-independent and frequency-dependent nonlinear models of TWT amplifiers, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 29, no. 11, 1715–1720, Nov. (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [R91]
    Rapp, C.: Effect of HPA-nonlinearity on 4-DPSK/OFDM-signal for a digital sound broadcasting system, in proceedings of the second European conference on satellite communications, Liege, Belgium, Oct. 22–24, 179–184, (1991)Google Scholar
  16. [LC98]
    Li,X., Cimini, L.J.: Effect of Clipping and Filtering on the performance of OFDM, IEEE Communication Letters, vol. 2 no. 5, 131-133, May (1998)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [J02]
    Armstrong, J.: Peak-to-average power reduction for OFDM by repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering, Electron. Lett., vol. 38, 246–247, Feb. (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [JWB94]
    Jones, A.E., Wilkinson, T.A., Barton, S.K.: Block coding scheme for reduction of peak to mean envelope power ratio of multicarrier transmission scheme, Electron. Lett., vol. 30, 2098–2099, Dec. (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [WJ95]
    Wilkinson,T.A., Jones, A.E.: Minimization of the peak to mean envelope power ratio in multicarrier transmission schemes by block coding, in Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., Chicago, IL, 825–831, July (1995)Google Scholar
  20. [TJ00]
    Tarokh, V., Jafarkhani, H.: On the computation and reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio in multicarrier communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 48, 37–44, Jan. (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [PT00]
    Paterson, K.G., Tarokh, V.: On the existence and construction of good codes with low peak-to-average power ratios, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 46, no. 6, 1974–1987, Sept. (2000)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [MH97]
    Muller, S.H., Huber, H.B.: OFDM with reduced peak-to-mean power ratio by optimum combination of partial transmit sequences, Electron. Lett., vol. 33, 368–369, Feb. (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [BFH96]
    Bauml, R.W., Fischer, R.F.H., Huber, J.B.: Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping, Electron. Lett., vol. 32, 2056–2057, Oct. (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [JTR00]
    Jayalath, A.D.S., Tellambura, C.: Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signal through bit or symbol interleaving, Elect. Lett., vol. 36, no. 13, 1161–1163, June (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [KJ03]
    Krongold, B.S., Jones, D.L.: PAR reduction in OFDM via active constellation extension, IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 49, no. 3, 258–268, Sept. (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [HLZLG04]
    Huang, X., Lu, J., Zheng J., Letaief, K.B., Gu, J.: Companding transform for reduction in peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM signals, IEEE Trans. Wireless Comuunications, vol. 03, No. 6, 2030–2038, Nov. (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [LdE08]
    Lee B.M., de Figueiredo, R.J.P.: An enhanced iterative flipping algorithm for PAPR reduction of OFDM signals, to be submitted. Google Scholar
  28. [CS00]
    Cimini Jr., L.J., Sollenberger, N.R.: Peak-to-average power ratio reduction of an OFDM signal using partial transmit sequences, IEEE Communication Letters, vol. 4, 86–88, Mar. (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [LdL06]
    Lee, B.M., de Figueiredo, R.J.P.: A low complexity tree algorithm for PTS-based PAPR reduction in wireless OFDM, 2006 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2006 Proceedings, vol. 4, 301–304, 14-19 May (2006)Google Scholar
  30. [LdD08]
    Lee B.M., de Figueiredo, R.J.P.: Design of the clipping with adaptive symbol selection for PAPR reduction of OFDM signal in flat and frequency selective fading channels, to be submitted.Google Scholar
  31. [OH00]
    Ochiai, H., Imai, H.: Performance of the deliberate clipping with adaptive symbol selection for strictly band-limited OFDM systems, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 18, 2270–2277, Nov. (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [LdP08]
    Lee B.M., de Figueiredo, R.J.P.: Performance analysis of the clipping with adaptive symbol selection for PAPR reduction of OFDM signal in flat and frequency selective fading channels, to be submitted.Google Scholar
  33. [Ld07]
    Lee B.M., de Figueiredo, R.J.P.: Side information power allocation for MIMO-OFDM PAPR reduction by selected mapping, 2007 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2007, vol. 3, 361–364, 15–20 April (2007)Google Scholar
  34. [S98]
    Alamouti, S.M.: A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 8, 1451–1458, Oct. (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [TSC98]
    Tarokh, V., Seshadri, N., Calderbank, A.R.: Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communications: Performance criterion and code construction, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 44, 744–765, Mar. (1998)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [TJC99]
    Tarokh, V., Jafarkhani, H., Calderbank, A.R.: Space-time block codes from orthogonal design, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 45, no. 5, 1456–1567, Jul. (1999)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [J05]
    Jafarkhani, H.: Space-time coding: Theory and practice, Cambridge University Press, London (2005)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [Te99]
    Telatar, E.: Capacity of multi-antenna Gaussian channels, European Trans. Telecomm., vol. 10, no. 6, 585–596, Nov. (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [F96]
    Foschini, G.J.: Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment when using multi-element antennas, Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 1, no. 2, 41–59, (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [FG98]
    Foschini, G.J., Gans, M.J.: On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas, Wireless Personal Commun., vol. 6, 311–335, (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [WFGV98]
    Wolniasky, P.W., Foschini, G.J., Golden, G.D., Valenzuela, R.: V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich scattering wireless channel, in Proc. ISSSE 98, Pisa, Italy, 295–300, (1998)Google Scholar
  42. [LYJPS03]
    Lee, Y., You, Y., Jeon, W., Paik J., Song, H.: Peak-to-average power ratio in MIMO-OFDM systems using slective mapping, IEEE Comm. Lett., vol. 7, no. 12, 575–577, Dec. (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Infra LaboratorySouth Korea
  2. 2.California Institute for Telecommunications and Information TechnologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations