• Ali Saberi
  • Anton A. Stoorvogel
  • Peddapullaiah Sannuti
Part of the Systems & Control: Foundations & Applications book series (SCFA)


Constraints on inputs and other variables of a dynamic system are ubiquitous. Often they occur in the form of magnitude as well as rate saturation of a variable. Clearly, the capacity of every device is capped. Valves can only be operated between fully open and fully closed states, pumps and compressors have a finite throughput capacity, and tanks can only hold a certain volume. Force, torque, thrust, stroke, voltage, current, flow rate, and so on, are limited in their activation range in all physical systems. Servers can serve only so many consumers. In circuits, transistors and amplifiers are saturating components. Saturation and other physical limitations are dominant in maneuvering systems like aircrafts. Every physically conceivable actuator, sensor, or transducer has bounds on the magnitude as well as on the rate of change of its output. Thus, the saturation of a device presents a hard constraint.


Linear System Hard Constraint Internal Stabilization Actuator Saturation Rate Saturation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Saberi
    • 1
  • Anton A. Stoorvogel
    • 2
  • Peddapullaiah Sannuti
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer ScienceUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA

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