Topology and Liquid Crystals
Liquid crystals are structures in an intermediate state between a liquid and a rigid body. There is a certain ambiguity in the very term. True liquid crystals have both the properties of a crystal (orderliness of structure) and the properties of a liquid (fluidity).
KeywordsVector Field Liquid Crystal Neutron Star Nematic Liquid Crystal Nematic Phase
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- 1.In the article, “E Pluribus Boojum,” published in the April 1981 issue of Physics Today (p. 46), Mermin has many interesting things to say about the history of the term boojum and about the humorous adventures met in trying to gain “citizenship” for the term among physicists.Google Scholar
- 2.At the end of the article cited above, Toulouse and Kléman wrote that they had discovered a use of analogous methods in field theory in the 1974 work of Perelomov and the author on classifying monopoles of ’t Hooft-Polyakov (see the chapter “Topological Particles”) and in the 1959 work of D. Finkelstein and C.W. Misner about conservation laws in gravitation theory.Google Scholar