Technological Networks

Part of the Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology book series (MSSET)

The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an introduction to the Internet and different protocols related to it. This section also specifies the socio-technological properties of the Internet, like scale invariance, the small-world property, network resilience, etc. Section 3 describes the P2P networks, their categorization, and other related issues like search, stability, etc. Section 4 concludes the chapter.


Degree Distribution Percolation Threshold Transmission Control Protocol Average Path Length Distribute Hash Table 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia

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