Foundations of Number Theory


Back in elementary school, we learned four fundamental operations on numbers (integers), namely, addition (+), subtraction (−), multiplication (× or ·), and division \( ( \div or/or\tfrac{{}} {c}) \). For any two integers a and b, their sum a + b, differences ab and ba, and product ab are all integers, while their quotients a ÷ b (or a/b or a/b) and b ÷ a are not necessarily integers.


Positive Integer Number Theory Prime Divisor Diophantine Equation Residue Class 
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© Birkhäuser Boston 2007

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