Algebraic and Geometric Preliminaries


The mathematician Euler once said, “God made integers, all else is the work of man.” In this chapter, we have advanced in the evolutionary process to the real number system. We partially characterize the real numbers and then, alas, find an imperfection. The quadratic equation x2 + 1 = 0 has no solution.


Real Number Complex Number Equilateral Triangle Cube Root Polar Representation 
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© Birkhäuser Boston 2006

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