Advertisement

Roles of Superoxide, Nitric Oxide, and Peroxynitrite in Various Pathological Conditions

  • Hideyuki Ishida
  • Minhaz Uddin Mohammed
  • Zhi Su
  • Minako Fujishima
  • Hiroe Nakazawa
Part of the Progress in Experimental Cardiology book series (PREC, volume 1)

Abstract

It has become apparent that endothelial and inflammatory cells can produce both superoxide (O2 ) and nitric oxide (NO). When O2 and NO coexist, they react to yield peroxynitrite (ONOO). ONOO is a potent oxidant. This chapter reevaluates free radical-related injury with particular attention to the reaction of O2 , NO, and ONOO. Through ischemia—repefiusion study using isolated rat hearts, it is suggested that the cytotoxic molecule is ONOO. Similarly, in the study of activated leukocyte-induced cardiac myocyte injury, ONOO appears to be responsible for the injury. However, in activated leukocyte-induced endothelial cell injury, the hydroxyl radical plays a significant role. The evidence to infer the formation of ONOO was obtained from a study of patients with septic shock. In conclusion, cytotoxic molecules and the mechanism underlying cell damage appear to depend not only on the effector but also on the target cells, and it is very important to identify the actual cytotoxic molecule under an individual pathological condition.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Septic Shock Cardiac Myocytes Coronary Blood Flow Control Heart 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Palmer RMJ, Ferrige AG, Moncada S. 1987. Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature 327:524–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huie RE, Padmaja S. 1993. The reaction of NO with superoxide. Free Rad Res Commun 18:195–199.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fukuyama N, Ishida H, Ichimori K, Su, Z, Nakazawa H. 1995. Peroxynitrite in neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity to myocardial cells (abstract). Endothelium 3(Suppl):S40.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ichiropoulos H, Zhu L, Chen J, Tsai M, Martin JC, Smith CD, Beckman JS. 1992. Peroxinitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration catalyzed by superoxide dismutase. Arch Biochem Biophys 298:431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beckman JS, Ye YZ, Anderson PG, Chen J, Accavitti MA, Tarpey MM, White CR. 1994. Extensive nitration of protein tyrosine in human atherosclerosis detected by immunohistochemistry. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 375:81–88.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaur H, Halliwell B. 1994. Evidence for nitric oxide-mediated oxidative damage in chronic inflamation—nitrotyrosine in serum and synovial fluid from rheumatoid patients. FEBS Lett 350:9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wizemann TM, Gardner CR, Laskin JD, Quinoes S, Durham SK, Goller NL, Ohnishi T, Laskin DL. 1994. Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia. J Leuk Biol 56:759–768.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koppenol WH, Moreno JJ, Pryor WA, Ischiropoulos H, Bechan JS. 1992. Peroxynitrite: a cloaked oxidant from superoxide and nitric oxide. Chem Res Toxicol 5:534–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pryor WA, Squadrito GL. 1995. The chemistry of peroxynitrite: a product from the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. Am J Physiol 268:L699–L722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Minhaz U, Tanaka M, Tsukamoto H, Watanabe K, Koide S, Shohtsu A, Nakazawa H. 1996. Effect of MCI-186 on postischemic reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. Free Rad Res 24(5):361–367.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ishida H, Hirota Y, Nakazawa H. 1993. Effect of subskining concentrations of saponin on intracellular Ca2+ and plasma membrane fluidity in cultured cardiac cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1145:58–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carreras MC, Pargament GA, Catz SD, Poderoso JJ, Boveris A. 1994. Kinetics of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production and formation of peroxynitrite during the respiratory burst of human neutrophils. FEBS Lett 341:65–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ischiropolous H, Zhu L, Beckman JS. 1992. Peroxinitrite formation from macrophage-derived nitric oxide. Arch Biochem Biophys 298:446–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pronai L, Nakazawa H, Ichimori K, Saigusa Y, Ohkubo T, Hiramatsu K, Arimori S, Feher J. 1992. Time course of superoxide generation by leukocytes—the MCLA chemiluminescence system. Inflammation 16:437–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ludwig PW, Hunninghake DB, Hoidal JR. 1982. Increased leukocyte oxidative metabolism in hyperlipoproteinaemia. Lancet 2:348–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wisnok JS, Tannenbaum SR. 1982. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N]nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem 126:131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bechan JS, Beckman TW, Chen J, Marshall PA, Freeman BA. 1990. Apparent hydroxyl radical production by peroxynitrite: implications for endothelial injury from nitric oxide and superoxide. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 87:1620–1624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kettle AJ, Gedye CA, Hampton MB, Winterbourn CC. 1995. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase by benzoic acid hydrazides. Biochem J 308:559–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Floris R, Piersma SR, Yang G, Jones P, Wever R. 1993. Interaction of myeloperoxidase with peroxynitrate: a comparison with lactoperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase and catalase. Eur J Biochem 215:767–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ishida H, Ichimori K, Hirota Y, Fukahori M, Nakazawa H. 1996. Peroxynitrite-induced cardiac myocyte injury. Free Rad Biol Med 20:343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fukuyama N, Ichimori K, Su Z, Ishida H, Nakazawa H. 1996. Peroxynitrite formation from activated human leukocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 224:414–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Entman MK, Youker K, Shoji T, Kukielka G, Shappell SB, Taylor AA, Smith CW. 1992. Neutrophil induced oxidative injury of cardiac myocytes (a compartmented system requiring CD11b/CD18-ICAM-1 adherence). J Clin Invest 90:1335–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Youker K, Smith CW, Anderson DC, Miller D, Michael LH, Rossen RD, Entman ML. 1992. Neutrophil adherence to isolated adult cardiac myocytes (induction by cardiac lymph collection during ischemia and reperfusion). J Clin Invest 89:602–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fukuyama N, Takebayashi Y, Hida M, Ishida H, Ichimori K, Nakazawa H. 1997. Clinical evidence of peroxynitrite formation in chronic renal failure patients with septic shock. Free Rad Biol Med 22(5):771–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oshima H, Brouet I, Bartsch H. 1990. Nitrotyrosine as a new marker for endogenous nitrosation and nitration of proteins. Fundam Chem Toxicol 28:647–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sokolovsky M, Riordan JF, Vallee BL. 1967. Conversion of 3-nitrotyrosine to 3-aminotyrosine in peptides and proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 27:20–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hideyuki Ishida
    • 1
  • Minhaz Uddin Mohammed
    • 1
  • Zhi Su
    • 1
  • Minako Fujishima
    • 1
  • Hiroe Nakazawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Tokai UniversityJapan

Personalised recommendations