Advertisement

Vascular Aging

  • Joël Belmin
Part of the Basic Science for the Cardiologist book series (BASC, volume 1)

Abstract

Aging is responsible for important changes in vascular structure and function which in turn affect the function of the heart and of other organs. Aging is associated with large artery remodeling, characterized by a progressive increase in stiffness and changes in the function of the endothelium and of smooth muscle cells (SMC). The effects of aging on the arterial system should be differentiated from that of atherosclerosis. Even though atherosclerosis is highly prevalent among aged individuals, the two processes are distinct in many ways. Aging, a physiological process which affects the entire vascular system, starts after sexual maturation and leads to enlargement of the arterial lumen, whereas atherosclerosis is a disease that affects limited areas of arteries, which usually starts in infancy or in adolescence and tends to narrow the lumen. During the last decades, research advances in vascular biology have provided a better understanding of the process of vascular aging.

Keywords

Arterial Compliance Vasomotor Response Vascular Aging Glycation Process Aged Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Virmani R, Avolio AP, Mergner WJ, et al. Effect of aging on aortic morphology in populations with high and low prevalence of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Am J Pathol 1991;139:1119–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benetos A, Laurent S, Hoeks AP, Boutoutrie PH, Safar ME. Arterial alterations with aging and high blood pressure. Arterioscl er Thromb 1993;13:90–97.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bonithon-Kopp C, Touboul PJ, Berr C, Magne C, Ducimetière P. Factors of carotid enlargement in a population aged 59 to 71 years. The EVA study. Stroke 1996;27:654–60.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Keohane SG, Adams CW, Poston RN. Coronary arterial dimensions and cell populations in ageing man. Atherosclerosis 1988;69:103–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Michel JB, Heudes D, Michel O, et al. Effect of chronic ANG I-converting enzyme inhibition on aging processes. II. Large arteries. Am J Physiol 1994; 267: R124–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cliff WJ. The aortic tunica media in aging rats. Exp. Mol Path 1970;13:172–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fornieri C, Quaglino D, Mori G. Role of the extracellular matrix in age-related modifications of the rat aorta. Ultrastructural, morphometric and enzymatic evaluations. Arterioscler Thromb 1992;12:1008–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O’Rourke MF, Avolio AP, Lauren PD, Yong J. Age-related changes of elastic lamellae in the human thorcic aorta. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987;29:A53.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robert L, Jacob MP, Frances C, Godeau G, Hornebeck W. Interaction between elastin and elàstases and its role in aging of arterial wall, skin, and other connective tissues. A review. Mech Aging Dev 1984;28:155–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fischer GM. Effects of spontaneous hypertension and age on arterial connective tissue in the rat. Exp. Geront 1976;11:209–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anidjar S, Salzmann JL, Gentric D, Lagneau P, Camilleri JP, Michel JB. Elastase-induced experimental aneurysms in rats. Circulation 1990;82:973–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gerrity RG, Cliff WF. The aortic tunica intima in young and aging rats. Exp Mol Pathol 1972;16:382–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guyton JR Lindsay KL, Dao DT. Comparison of aortic intima and inner media in young adult versus aging rats. Am J Pathol 1983;111:234–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haudenschild CC, Prescott MF, Chobanian AV. Aortic endothelial and subendothelial cells in experimental hypertension and aging. Hypertension 1981;3(suppl I): 148–153.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Richardson M, Hatten MWC, Moore S. Proteoglycan distribution in the intima and media of the aortas of young and aging rabbits: an ultrastructural study. Atherosclerosis 1988;71:243–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haudenschild CC, Chobanian AV. Blood pressure lowering diminishes age-related changes in the rat aortic intima. Hypertension, 1984;6(suppl I):62–68.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wolinsky H. Long-term effects of hypertension on the rat aortic wall and their relation to concurrent aging changes. Morphological and chemical studies. Circ Res 1972;30:301–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hallock P, Benson IC. Studies on the elastic properties of human isolated aorta. J Clin Invest 1973;16:595–602.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Avolio AP, Chen S, Wang R, Zhang CL, Li MF, O’Rourke MF. Effects of aging on changing arterial compliance and left ventricular load in a northen Chinese urban community. Circulation 1983;68:50–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Avolio AP, Deng FG, Li WQ, et al. Effects of aging on arterial distensibility in populations with high and low prevalence of hypertension: comparison between urban and rural communities in China. Circulation 1985;71:202–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brownlee M, Cerami A, Vlassara H. Advanced glycosylation end products in tissue and biochemical basis of diabetic complications. N Engl J Med 1988;307:205–11.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brownlee M, Vlassara H, Cerami A. Nonenzymatic glycosylation and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Ann Intern Med 1984;101:527–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sell DR, Monnier VM. Structure elucidation of a senescence cross-link from human extracellular matrix. J Biol Chem 1989; 264:21597–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reiser KM. Non enzymatic glycation of collagen in aging and diabetes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1991;196:14–29.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schnider SL, Kohn RR. Glucosylation of human collagen in aging and diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1980;66:1179–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Monnier VM, Kohn RR, Cerami A. Accelerated age-related browning of human collagen in diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1984;81:883–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Safar M. Ageing and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Drugs 1990;39(Suppl 1): 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mérillon JP, Motte G, Masquet G, Azancot I, Guiomard A, Gourgon R Relationship between physical properties of the arterial system and left ventricular performance in the course of aging and in permanent arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J 1982;3(suppl A):95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nichols WW, Avolio AP, Kelly RP, et al. Effects of age and hypertension on wave travel and reflections. In: O’Rourke MF, Safar M and Dzau V, eds. Arterial vasodilatation: mechanisms and therapy. London, Edwards Arnold, 1993:23–40.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gerstenblith G, Frederiksen J, Yin FC, Fortuin NJ, Lakatta EG, Weisfeldt ML. Echocardiographic assessment in a normal adult aging population. Circulation 1977;56:273–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schwartz MS, Benditt EP. Aortic endothelial cell replication. I. Effects of age and hypertension in the rat. Circ Res 1977;41:248–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Challah M, Nadaud S, Philippe M, et al. Circulating and cellular markers of endothelial dysfunction with aging in rats. Am J Physiol 1997;273:H1941–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Belmin J, Corman B, Merval R, Tedgui A. Age-related changes in albumin endothelial permeability and distribution volume in the rat aorta. Am J Physiol 1993;264:H679–H685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fry DL. Mass transport, atherogenesis and risk. Arteriosclerosis 1987;7:88–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lin SJ, Jan KM, Schuessler G, Weinbaum S, Chien S. Enhanced macromolecular permeability of aortic endothelial cells in association with mitosis. Arteriosclerosis 1988;73:223–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Esposito C, Gerlag H, Brett J, Stern D, Vlassara H. Endothelial receptor-mediated binding of glucose-modified albumin is associated with increased monolayer permeability and modulation of cell surface coagulant properties. JExp Med 1989;170:1387–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tokunaga O, Yamada T, Fan J, Watanabe T. Age-related decline in prostacyclin synthesis by human aortic endothelial cells. Am JPathol 1991;138:941–9.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Masotti G, Poggesi L, Galanti, et al. Prostacyclin production in man. In: Lewis PJ, O’Grady J, eds. Clinical pharmacology of prostacyclin. New York: Raven Press, 1981:9–20.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hongo K, Nakagomi T, Kassell NF et al. Effects of aging and hypertension on endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat carotid artery. Stroke 1988; 19:892–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koga T, Takata Y, Kobayashi K, Takishita S, Yamashita Y, Fujishima M. Ageing supresses endothelium-dependent relaxation and generates contraction mediated by the muscarinic receptors in vascular smooth muscle of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 1988; 6(suppl 4):243–245.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Soltis EE. Effet of age on blood pressure and membrane-dependent vascular responses in the rat. Circ Res 1987;10:889–897.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Atkinson J, Tatchum-Talom R, Capdeville-Atkinson C. Reduction of endothelial function with age in the mesenteric arterial bed of the normotensive rat. Br J Pharmacol 1994; 111:1184–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Egashira K, Inou T, Hirooka Y, et al. Effects of age on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of resistance coronary artery by acetylcholine in humans. Circulation 1993;88:77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yasue H, Matsuyama K, Matsuyama K, Okumura K, Morikami Y, Ogawa H. Responses of angiographically normal human coronary arteries to intracoronary injection of acetylcholine by age and segment. Circulation 1990;81:482–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gerhard M, Roddy MA, Creager SJ, Creager MA. Aging progressively impairs endothelium dependent vasodilation in forearm resistance vessels of humans. Hypertension 1996;27:849–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Celermajer DS, Sorensen KE, Spiegelhalter DJ, Georgakopoulos D, Robinson J, Deanfield JE. Aging is associated with endothelial dysfunction in healthy men years before age-related decline in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24:471–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tominaga M, Fujii K, Abe L, Takata Y, Kobayashi K, Fujishima M. Hypertension and aging impair acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation in rats. J Hypertens 1994;12:259–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Reckelhoff JF, Manning RD. The role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in control of renal vasculature in aging male rats. Am J Physiol 1993;265:R1126–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dohi Y, Kojima M, Sato K, Lüscher TF. Age-related changes in vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. Drugs Aging 1995;7:278–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Paterno R, Faraci FM, Heistad DD. Age-related changes in release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from the carotid artery. Stroke 1994;25:2457–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dohi Y, Lüscher TF. Aging differentially affects direct and indirect actions of endothelin-1 in perfused mesenteric arteries of the rat. Br J Pharmacol 1990;100:889–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bucala R, Tracey K, Cerami A. Advanced glycosylation end-products quench nitric oxide and mediate defective endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in experimental diabetes. J Clin Invest 1991;87:432–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Barton M, Cosentino F, Brandes RP, Moreau P, Shaw S, Lüsher TF. Anatomic heterogenity of vascular aging: role of nitric oxide and endothelin. Hypertension 1997;30:817–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chou TC, Yen MH, Li CY, Ding YA. Alterations of nitric oxide synthase expression with aging and hypertension. Hypertension 1998;31:643–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Aliev G, Miah S, Turmaine M, Burnstock G. An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study of thoracic aortic endothelium in aged Sprague-Dawley rats. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol 1995;27:477–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tschudi MR, Barton M, Bersinger NA, et al. Effect of age on kinetics of nitric oxide release in rat aorta and pulmonary artery. J Clin Invest 1996; 1598:899–905.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ishihata A, Katano Y, Morinobu S, Endoh M. Influence of aging to the contractile response to endothelin of rat thoracic aorta. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;200:199–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hajdu MA, McElmurry RT, Heistad DD, Baumbach GL. Effects of aging on cerebral vascular responses to serotonin in rats. Am J Physiol 1993;264:H2136–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fleish JH, Maling HM, Brodie BB. Beta-receptor activity in aorta: variations with age and species. Circ Res 1970;26:151–62.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Feldman RD. A low-sodium diet corrects the defect in ß-adrenergic response in older subjects. Circulation 1992;85:612–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    O’Donnel SR, Wanstall JC. Beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoreceptor-mediated responses in preparations of pulmonary artery and aorta from young and aged rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1984;228:733–8.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Capdeville-Atkinson C, Oster L, Thorin-Trescases N, Robert A, Corman B, Atkinson J. Effect of chronic ANG I-converting enzyme inhibition on aging processes. V. Intracellular calcium-vasoreactivity coupling. Am J Physiol 1995;268:R1394–1400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Blauw GJ, Van Blummelen P, Chang PC, Vermeij P, van Zwieten PA Arterial dilatation and venous constriction induced by serotonin in elderly in the elderly. Drugs 1988;36(suppl 1):74–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Owen TL. Effects of age on blood pressure and small vessels reactivity in male rabbits. Blood Vessels 1986, 23:271–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lang MG, Noll G, Lüscher TF. Effect of aging and hypertension on contractility of resistance arteries: modulation by endothelial factors. Am J Physiol 1995;269:H837–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Atkinson J, Tatchum-Talom R, Corman B. Effect of chronic ANG I-converting enzyme inhibition on aging processes. III. Endothelial function of mesenteric arterial bed of rat. Am J Physiol 1994;264:R136–43.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stemerman MB, Weinstein R, Rowe JW, Maciag T, Fuhro R, Gardner R. Vascular smooth muscle cell growth kinetics in vivo in aged rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1982;79:3863–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hariri RJ, Alonso DR, Hajjar DP, Coletti D, Weksler ME. Aging and arteriosclerosis. Development of myointimal hyperplasia after endothelial injury. J Exp Med 1986;164:1171–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hariri RJ, Hajjar DP, Coletti D, Alonso DR, Weksler ME, Rabellino E. Aging and, arteriosclerosis. Cell cycle kinetics of young and old arterial smooth muscle cells. Am J Pathol 1988;131:132–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bochaton-Pialat ML, Gabbiani F, Ropraz P, Gabbiani G. Age influences the replicative activity and the differenciation features of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell population and clones. Arterioscl er Thromb 1993;13:1449–55.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    McCaffrey TA, Nicholson AC, Szabo PE, Weksler ME, Weksler BB. Aging and arteriosclerosis. The increased proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells isolated from old rats is associated with increased Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-like activity. J Exp Med 1988;167:163–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sarzani R, Arnaldi G, Takasaki I, Brecher P, Chobanian AV. Effect of hypertension and aging on PDGF and PDGF-receptor expression in rat aorta and heart. Hypertension 1991;18(supp13):93–99.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Miyagawa J, Higashiyama S, Kawata S, et al. Localisation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in the smooth muscle cells and macrophages of human atherosclerotic plaques. J Clin Invest 1995;95:404–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Belmin J, Bernard C, Corman B, Merval R, Esposito B, Tedgui A. Increased production of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 by arterial wall of aged rats. Am J Physiol 1995;268:H2288–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ikeda U, Ikeda M, Oohara T, et al. Interleukin 6 stimulates growth of vascular smooth cells in a PDGF-dependent manner. Am J Physiol 1991;269:H1713–17.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pober JS, Cotran RS. Cytokines and endothelial cell biology. Physiol Rev 1990;70:427–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    McCaffrey TA, Falcone DJ. Evidence for an age-related dysfunction in the antiproliferative response to transforming growth factor-ß in vascular smooth muscle cells. Mol Biol Cell 1993;4:315–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Weber G, Bianciardi G, Bussani R, et al. Atherosclerosis and aging: a morphometric study on arterial lesions of elderly and very elderly necropsy subjects. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1988; 112:1066–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kannel WB, Gordon T. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in the elderly: the Framingham study. Bull N Y Acad Med 1978;54:573–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Spagnoli LG, Orlandi A, Mauriello A, De Angelis C, Ramaci MT. Age-dependent increase of rabbit aortic atherosclerosis. A morphometric approach. Path Res Pract 1992;188:637–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bullock BC, Clarkson TB, Lehner NDM, Lofland HB Jr, St. Clair RW. Atherosclerosis in Cebus albifrons monkeys: clinical and pathologic studies. Exp Mol Pathol 1969;10:39–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brownlee M, Vlassara H, Cerami A. Nonenzymatic glycosylation products on collagen covalently trap low density lipoprotein. Diabetes 1985;34:938–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kirkstein M, Aston C, Hintz R, et al. Receptor-specific induction of insulin-like growth factor I in human monocytes by advanced glycosylation end-products modified proteins. J Clin Invest 1992, 90:439–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vlassara H, Brownlee M, Manogue R, Dinarello CA, Pasaglan A. Cachectin/TNF and IL-1 induced by glucose-modified proteins: role in normal tissue remodeling. Science 1988;240:1546–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schmidt AM, Hori O, Chen JX, et al. Advanced glycation end-products interacting with their endothelial receptor induce expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in cultured human endothelial cells and in mice: a potential mechanism for accelerated vasculopathy of diabetes. J Clin Invest 1995;96:1395–1403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reiser KM. Influence of age and long-term dietary restriction on enzymatically mediated crosslinks and nonenzymatic glycation of collagen in mice. J Gerontol Biol Sci 1994;49:71–79.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sonaka I, Futami Y, Kobayashi T, Umezawa T, Maki T. Effects of dietary protein restriction on nitrogen balance and cardiovascular functions in aged rats. J Gerontol Biol Sci 1993;48:145–50.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Li YM, Steffes M, Donnely T et al. Prevention of cardiovascular and renal pathology of aging by the advanced glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1996;93:3902–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hammes HP, Martin S, Federlin K, Geisen K, Brownlee M. Aminoguanidine treatment inhibits the development of experimental diabetic retinopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:11555–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Corman B, Duriez M, Poitevin P, et al. Aminoguanidine prevents age-related arterial stiffening and cardiac hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:1301–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Reis SE, Gloth ST, Blumenthal RS, et al. Ethinyl estradiol acutely attenuates abnormal coronary vasomotor responses to acetylcholine in postmenopausal women. Circulation 1994;84:52–60.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mügge A, Riedel M, Barton M, Kuhn M, Lichtlen P. Endothelium independent relaxation of human coronary arteries by 17ß-oestradiol in vitro. Cardiovasc Res 1993;27:1939–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joël Belmin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GerontologyRené-Bigotini hospitalSevranFrance

Personalised recommendations