Sexual Dimorphism in Cardiovascular Disease

  • Stephen Bakir
  • Suzanne Oparil
Part of the Basic Science for the Cardiologist book series (BASC, volume 2)


The United States has experienced an overall decline in mortality from cardiovascular disease during the past twenty years, but this rate of decline has been slower in women than men. Although there has been an increasing awareness of cardiovascular disease in women over the past decade, this has not resulted in a decline in their rate of cardiovascular death. On the contrary, as the population ages, the percentage of women increases along with the absolute number of cardiovascular deaths in women (Figure 1).


Estrogen Receptor High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Cardiac Fibroblast Coronary Bypass Surgery United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Bakir
    • 1
  • Suzanne Oparil
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Alabama at BirminghamUK

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