Advertisement

Women’s Health and Menopause Epidemiology: The USA Experience

  • Vivian W. Pinn
  • Mary T. Chunko
  • Teri Manolio
Part of the Medical Science Symposia Series book series (MSSS, volume 13)

Abstract

For many years, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death for women of all races in the United States, as it is for men, and kills more women than men each year (Figure 1) [1,2]. In fact, CVD kills nearly twice as many women as cancer (the next leading cause) and is responsible for a slightly higher proportion of total deaths in Caucasian than African-American women [2].

Keywords

Postmenopausal Woman National Health Interview Survey Cardiovascular Health Study Postmenopausal Estrogen American Indian Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Public-use mortality data tapes and unpublished data from the Division of Vital Statistics, 1968 to 1995.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Office of Vital Statistics. Death rates by age, race, and sex; United States, 1900–1953: All causes. Vital Statistics Special Reports 1956;43(1):9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization. World Health Statistics Annual. Selected issues for years 1969 to 1994.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics of the United States, 1993. Vol. 2, pt. A. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. Projections of the population of the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1992 to 2050. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992 (current population reports: series p-25, no. 1092).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kannel WB, Wilson PWF. Risk factors that attenuate the female coronary disease advantage. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:57–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Unpublished tabulations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, furnished by Thomas Thorn (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Kannel WB, Ho KK. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure. JAMA 1996;275(20):15557–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    van der Schouw YT, van der Graaf Y, Steyerberg EW, Eijkemans MJC, Banga JD. Age at menopause as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Lancet 1996;347:714–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gensini GF, Micheli S, Prisco D, Abbate R. Menopause and risk of cardiovascular disease. Thrombosis Res 1996;84(1):1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Chartbook of the conference on the decline in coronary heart disease mortality, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    National Center for Health Statistics. National Hospital Discharge Survey. Vital and health statistics; Series 13 (issues from 1970 to 1995).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Unpublished tabulations from the National Health Interview Survey, 1988–1990 and 1991–1993, furnished by Thomas Thorn (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burt VL, Whelton P, Roccella EJ, et al. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the health examination surveys, 1960 to 1991. Hypertension 1995;26:60–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wing RR, Marcus MD, Salata R, Epstein LH, Miaskiewicz S, Blair EH. Effects of a very-low-calorie diet on long-term glycemic control in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:1334–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Poehlman ET, Toth MJ, Gardner AW. Changes in energy balance and body composition at menopause: A controlled longitudinal study. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:673–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scarabin P-Y, Vissac A-M, Kirzin J-M, et al. Population correlates of coagulation factor VII: Importance of age, sex, and menopausal status as determinants of activated factor VII. Thromb Vasc Biol 1996;16:1170–76.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1995;273(3):199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bush TL, Barrett-Connor E, Cowan LD, Criqui MH, Wallace RB, Suchindran CM. Cardiovascular mortality and non-contraceptive estrogen use in women: Results from the Lipid-Research Clinics Program Follow-up Study. Circulation 1987;75:1002–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wilcox JG, Hatch IE, Gentzschein BS, Stanczyk FZ, Lobo RA. Endothelin levels decrease after oral and nonoral estrogen in postmenopausal women with increased cardiovascular risk factors. Fertilit Sterility 1997;67(2):273–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen F-P, Lee N, Wang C-H, Cherng W-J, Soong Y-K. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. Fertilit Sterility 1998;69(2):267–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cowan LD, Go OT, Howard BV, et al. Parity, postmenopausal estrogen use, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in American Indian women: The Strong Heart Study. J Women’s Health 1997;6(4):441–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Manolio TA, Furberg CD, Shemanski L, et al. Associations of postmenopausal estrogen use with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in older women. The CHS Collaborative Research Group. Circulation 1993;88(5, pt.1):2163–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stampfer MJ, Willet WC, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of postmenopausal estrogen therapy and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1985; 313(17):1044–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sullivan JM, Vander Zwaag R, Lemp GF, et al. Postmenopausal estrogen use and coronary atherosclerosis. Ann Intern Med 1988;108:358–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Henderson BE, Paganini-Hill A, Ross, RK. Decreased mortality in users of estrogen replacement therapy. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:75–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grodstein F, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use and the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;335(7):453–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers and Fondazione Giovanni Lorenzini 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivian W. Pinn
  • Mary T. Chunko
  • Teri Manolio

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations