The Role of Estrogen in Brain Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease
There is a growing appreciation of the role of ovarian hormones as modulators of neuronal function within the central nervous system (CNS). Ovarian failure has long been known to result in reversible changes in mental function, affect, and behavior. More recent epidemiological investigations demonstrate that ovarian failure may result in changes in mental function that can be characterized by an acceleration of brain aging. The clinical expression of these changes are injurious falls, hip fracture, and automobile accidents which can be attributed to a slowing of brain processing of complex sensory information and the generation of a timely response. Estrogen deficiency is also associated with the earlier expression of Alzheimer’s disease. These effects of estrogen can be attributed to the multiple mechanisms whereby estrogens modify brain and neuronal function.
KeywordsBrain Aging Estrogen Replacement Therapy Estrogen Deficiency Ovarian Failure Early Expression
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.Gerdes LC, Sonnendecker EW, Polakow ES. Psychological changes effected by estrogen-progestogen and clonidine treatment in climacteric women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;142: 98–104.Google Scholar
- 7.Simpkins JW, Katovich MJ. Hypoglycemia causes hot flushes in animal models. In: Flint M, Kronenberg F, Utian W, editors. Multidisciplinary perspectives on menopause. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (vol 592), 1990:433–35.Google Scholar
- 10.Jorm AF, Korten AE, Henderson AS. The prevalence of dementia: A quantitative integration of the literature. 1987;76:465–79.Google Scholar
- 11.Paganini-Hill A, Henderson VW. Estrogen deficiency and risk of Alzheimer’s disease in women. Am J Epidemiology 1994;140:256–61.Google Scholar
- 13.Kawas C, Resnick S, Morrison A, et al. A prospective study of estrogen replacement therapy and the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Neurology 1997;48:1517–21.Google Scholar
- 15.Lerner AJ, Koss E, Debanne SM, et al. Interactions of smoking history with estrogen replacement therapy as protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Presentation, 26th Annual Meeting, Society of Neuroscience, Washington, DC, 1996.Google Scholar
- 16.Caldwell BM. An evaluation of psychological effects of sex hormone administration in aged women. J Gerontology 1954;9:168–74.Google Scholar
- 21.Resnick SM, Metter EJ, Zonderman AB. Estrogen replacement therapy and longitudinal decline in visual memory. Amer Acad Neurology 1997;49:1491–97.Google Scholar