Cardiovascular Disease: Risk Factors Related to Thrombosis

  • Giovanni de Gaetano
  • Maria Benedetta Donati
  • Licia Iacoviello
Part of the Medical Science Symposia Series book series (MSSS, volume 13)


The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is consistently higher among men than women. Mortality rates among premenopausal women in developed countries are about 20–30% lower than rates among men of similar age. Hormonal factors play a critical role in protecting women from the risk associated with other genetic and/or environmental factors. Gender differences in mortality, indeed, diminish following natural or surgical menopause. Among others, the systems of coagulation and fibrinolysis are related to CHD development. Increased levels of fibrinogen and coagulation factor VII (F VII) have been all consistently and independently related to the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Moreover, the plasma levels of these proteins can be modulated by sex hormones. In particular the levels of F VII are lower in premenopausal women than in males. They increase after menopause or under contraceptives, while conflicting effects have been reported after hormone replacement therapy (HRT).


Endometrial Cancer Hormone Replacement Therapy Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Cyproterone Acetate Estradiol Valerate 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers and Fondazione Giovanni Lorenzini 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni de Gaetano
  • Maria Benedetta Donati
  • Licia Iacoviello

There are no affiliations available

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