Factors Involved In The Cell Cycle Arrest Of Adult Rat Cardiomyocytes

Possibilities for the reactivation of the cardiomyocy te proliferation in cell culture
  • Josef P. Magyar
  • Hans M. Eppenberger
Part of the Cell Engineering book series (CEEN, volume 1)


The mammalian heart consists of two pumps called the left and right ventricles. The left ventricle has to work harder as it must force the blood around the body. Therefore, it is more likely to fail despite the fact that it has more muscle. O2 carried by the blood is essential to maintain life. If the left ventricle weakens, the body suffers from O2 deficit. A failing left ventricle will also fail to keep pace with the right ventricle, which is feeding the lungs, thus causing pulmonary blood congestion. If the right ventricle weakens, it will fail to propel enough blood through the lungs to exchange O2 to meet the needs of the rest of the body. There are four major types of cardiovascular diseases — hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and thrombosis — which account for most cases where the circulatory system goes wrong. Approximately 400,000 new cases of heart failure are registered in the US each year, summing up to four to five million people (Gheorghiade and Bonow, 1998). Heart attacks may lead to death or debilitation and the risk dying thereafter is considerably increased. (Cowie et al., 1997; Gheorghiade and Bonow, 1998; Sharpe and Doughty, 1998). Survivors suffer severe damage to heart muscle tissue that cannot regenerate. Frequently, the heart reacts to an increase in load caused by disease with a growth of the muscle tissue (hypertrophy) to compensate for pathological haemodynamics. This hypertrophy is solely based on an increase of the cardiac muscle cell size. Despite the facts that during the last 50 years much progress has been made in the recognition of cardiologie risk factors, in diagnosis and therapy of cardiovascular disorders, only little is known about the molecular and cellular fundamentals of these diseases.


Cell Cycle Arrest Proliferate Cell Nuclear Antigen Adult Cardiomyocytes Cardiomyocyte Proliferation Heavy Chain Promoter 
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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZurichSwitzerland

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